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Labour Studies: Essay #1 - HIST 2200/LABR 2200 Fall 2021

Recommended Sources & How to Explore Potential Sources

Primary Sources:

  • Immediate, first-hand accounts of a topic, from people who had a direct connection with it. 


  • Texts of laws and other original documents.
  • Newspaper reports, by reporters who witnessed an event or who quote people who did.
  • Speeches, diaries, letters and interviews - what the people involved said or wrote.
  • Original research.
  • Datasets, survey data, such as census or economic statistics.
  • Photographs, video, or audio that capture an event.

Secondary Sources:

  • One step removed from primary sources and often quote or otherwise use primary sources.
  • Add a layer of interpretation and analysis.


  • Most books about a topic.
  • Analysis or interpretation of data.
  • Scholarly or other articles about a topic, especially by people not directly involved.
  • Documentaries (though they often include photos or video portions that can be considered primary sources).


In addition to the above basic definitions, whether something is primary or secondary depends upon the topic and the context of the use.

Adapted from "Primary vs. Secondary" a libguide, Healy Library, University of Massachusetts Boston

The Globe (1844-1936)

Toronto, Ont.: The Globe and Mail

Full text coverage

May 8, 1844 - Nov 21, 1936

The Ontario Workman (1872 - 1875)

Google Newspaper Archives*

* You might find it difficult to locate relevant newspaper titles that cover the right period for the 19th century strikes.

The following journal articles are listed in Chicago Style. To help readers identify where they can locate the source, a citation stye breaks down into elements: author (s), article title, journal title, journal issue, and page numbers. There are over 8,000 different citation styles used by researchers.  In each style, you will see different formatting of the elements based on a given container where you find the source. In the case of Journal Articles, the container is Journal.  Journal, being a periodical publication, it is important to identify which issue the article was published and pages in which you will locate it.  Note, also, that you will add notes or in-text citations as you compose a paper according to the style you are using. See Citation Style References section for the details on APA and MLA.


Babcock, Robert H. "A Note on the Toronto Printer's Strike, 1872." Laboour/Le Travail 7 (1981): 127-129.

Radforth, Ian. “Playful Crowds and the 1886 Toronto Street Railway Strikes.” Labour / Le Travail 76 (2015): 133–64.

Lutz, John. "After the Fur Trade: The Aboriginal Labouring Class of British Columbia, 1849-1890." Journal of the Canadian Historical Association 3, no.1 (1992): 69-93.

Parnaby, Andrew. "'The Best Men that Ever Worked the Lumber': Aboriginal Longshoremen on Burrard Inlet, BC, 1863-1939." The Canadian Historical Review 87, 1 (2006): 53-78.

The common source type cited in the following list is a chapter in a book.  In this case, Book is the container.  Look for more examples in Citation Style References section.

Graphic History Collective, "Introduction" and "Chapter 1: 1800-1900."  In Direct Action Gets the Goods: A Graphic History of the Strike in Canada: 2-12. Toronto: Between the Lines, 2019.

Palmer, Bryan D., Gregory S. Kealey, Sen Carleton, Julia Smith, Rrobin Folvik, and Sam Bradd. "Dreaming of What Might Be: The Knights of Labor in Canada, 1880-1900." In Drawn to Change: Graphic Histories of Working-class Struggle, edited by Graphic History Collective and Paul Buhle,12-25. Toronto: Between the Lines, 2016.

Parnaby, Andrew, Tania Willard, Robin Folvik, and Sean Carleton.  "Working on Water, Fighting for the Land: Indigenous Labour on BUrrard Inlet." In Drawn to Change: Graphic Histories of Working-class Struggle, edited by Graphic History Collective and Paul Buhle, 27-42. Toronto: Between the Lines, 2016.


When you locate a source on the web, you will need to assess the type of source to which you refer. You will find many different containers on the web as well: blog, twitter, newsletter, newspaper archive, podcast, etc. See Citation Style References section for details.

Nisbitt, Doug. The Nine Hour Movement: How Civil Disobedience Made Unions Legal. Rank and File, August 14, 2013.

Shantz, Jeff. "Bows and Arrows: Indigenous Workers, IWW Local 526, and Syndicalism on the Vancouver Docks." February 17, 2021.

Selective Online Sources (Retrieved September 17, 2021):

The 1872 Printer's Strike

A Real Strike Led by the Knights of Labour

The 1886 Toronto Street Railway Strike

A Strike led by IWW Local 526

Other Sources on the 19th Century Industrial Relations and Characters in the Dominion:

When you use any web platform for interactive activities, you need to secure the system and protect your privacy according to your preferences. Given the continuously changing web environment, so does the standards for security and privacy protection. 

Please check the following information and instructions for two commonly used browsers, Google Chrome or Firefox,  to ensure your privacy:

Google Chrome


Citation Style References

The Writing Tutor Program - Academic Learning Centre

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  • The tutor will ask you to share your assignment description.
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Useful Sources & References

Research & Writing Tips

  • Refer to the assignment's guidelines.
  • Taking Notes by Margaret Procter, University of Toronto Writing Centre
  • Writing & Revising by Margaret Procter, University of Toronto Writing Centre

So EASY to Plagiarise and How to AVOID It:

References to Citation Styles

Chicago Citation Style - Notes & Bibliography (an official manual)

Blog Post | YouTube | Twitter Post (APA)

Blog Post/Web Site

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of blog post. Blog Name. https://xxxxx

Author’s last nameInitial(s). [or the name of the body responsible]. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of workWebsitehttps://URL


Fisher D. R. (2017, January 26).  The women’s march was only the beginning. Context:  Sociology for the Public.


Channel. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of video [Video]. Website. https://URL


Scribbr. (2020, August 20). Develop a theoretical framework in 3 steps [Video]. YouTube.


Author name, Initials [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of tweet [Tweet]. Twitter. URL


Trump, D. J. [@realDonaldTrump]. (2020, September 28). FAKE NEWS! [Tweet]. Twitter.

Note:  Donal Trump’s twitter account has been suspended.  The 2nd line should be indented.

Citation Tool