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HMEC 2030W - 2011 Summer Session: Integrating Sources in Writing

Key resources to work on Paper #1, #2, & #3 of the course.

Quoting and Paraphrasing

For both of the papers for this course, you are reading scholarly sources to inform your point of view and to build your knowledge base.  The assignment guidelines for the second paper ask you to use at least 6 academic sources in your paper. But how do you effectively integrate the ideas of others? There are two basic choices: quoting and paraphrasing.

Paraphrasing

When you paraphrase, you are putting the ideas of others into your own words. When you paraphrase, be sure to

  • change the words and the sentence structure of the original text
  • be true to the spirit of the original text and present the material accurately
  • provide an in-text citation for the source to show your reader where the idea comes from.

Quoting

When you quote, be sure to

  • use the exact words of the author of the text
  • enclose the words inside quotation marks to show your reader that you are using someone else's words
  • provide an in-text citation for the source to show your reader where the words and idea come from.

Writers usually choose to paraphrase because paraphrasing shows that they have understood what they have read and that they can integrate the material from their sources into their original argument.

Paraphrasing Exercise: Which of the following sentences work as paraphrases?

Instructions: Read the "original text" provided below. Which of the sentences that follow the original text can be considered good paraphrases? Watch for the way words and sentence structures have been changed from the original. The box at the bottom of this page provides an explanation for each sentence.

Original Text

"While leaving home and going to university in a new country can be very challenging, it also brings many benefits to the students who are willing to launch out in this way" (Block, 2011).

Paraphrases

  1. Although going to university in a foreign country can be difficult, it is advantageous for those people who take this risk (Block, 2011).
  2. According to Block (2011), leaving home and going to university in a foreign country can be difficult. However, the advantages outweigh the challenges.
  3. Going to university in a new country can be challenging, but it also brings advantages for students who study abroad (Block, 2011).
  4. University students who take the risk of studying in a new country face both difficulties and advantages (Block, 2011).
  5. While attending university in a new country can be challenging, it also brings benefits (Block, 2011).

Setting up a Paraphrase or Quote

In APA, you can let your reader know the sources for your information in two ways.

 

(1) A citation in parentheses at the end of the paraphrased or quoted material.

Example:       University students who take the risk of studying in a new country face both difficulties and advantages (Block, 2011).

 

(2) A lead-in providing the author's name at the beginning of the paraphrased or quoted material.

Block (2011) points out that university students who take the risk of studying in a new country face both difficulties and advantages.

 

Questions for consideration:

In what situations does it make sense to use parenthetical citations in your writing?

In what situations does it make sense to use lead-ins? 

** Whichever strategy you use, be sure to provide a full reference for the source at the end of your paper.

 

Resources

Check out the Learning Assistance Centre handout called "Paraphrasing" to see examples of good and poor paraphrases.

Check out the Learning Assistance Centre handout called "Verbs that Describe an Author's Attitude" for a list of verbs that you can use when you are creating lead-ins to quotes or paraphrases.  

 

Explanation for the Paraphrasing Exercise

Which of the attempts at paraphrasing below are adequate? Check out the notes below each attempt for an explanation.

 

Original Text

"While leaving home and going to university in a new country can be very challenging, it also brings many benefits to the students who are willing to launch out in this way" (Block, 2011).

Paraphrases

  1. Although going to university in a foreign country can be difficult, it is advantageous for those people who take this risk (Block, 2011).

 This is not an adequate paraphrase. The sentence structure mirrors the original text, and the string of words in blue is almost exactly copied from the original.

 

   2. According to Block (2011), leaving home and going to university in a foreign country can be difficult. However, the advantages outweigh the challenges.

This is not an adequate paraphrase. The string of words in blue is almost exactly copied from the original, and the idea in the second part of the sentence isn't accurately re-stated.

 

   3. Going to university in a new country can be challenging, but it also brings advantages for students who study abroad (Block, 2011).

This is not an adequate paraphrase. The strings of words in blue are almost exactly copied from the original.

 

   4.  University students who take the risk of studying in a new country face both difficulties and advantages (Block, 2011).

This is an adequate paraphrase. The sentence structure has been changed and as have the words.

 

   5. While attending university in a new country can be challenging, it also brings benefits (Block, 2011).

This is not an adequate paraphrase. The sentence structure closely mirrors the original, and the strings of words in blue are close to copied from the original.