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HMEC 2000 Course Guide: Using APA

Facilitating and Guiding Students' Learning ...


  1. Overview of Citing and Referencing
  2. Writing Up References
  3. Exercise
  4. Exercise Answers
  5. Citing Sources in the Body of the Paper (In-Text Citations)
  6. Resources
  7. How to Prepare Your Paper in APA 6th Style - Step by Step in Word
  8. For Any Specific Questions about APA Style

Overview of Citing and Referencing

APA citing and referencing includes two fundamental parts:

  • citing your sources in the body of your paper
  • providing a complete References list at the end of your paper with the publication information of your sources.

On this page, the first box in the right column provides basic information about citing your sources in the body of your paper. The boxes below provide information about and practise in building a References list.

Be sure to check out the resources in the box called "Referencing Resources (with Models)."

Writing Up References: A Step-by-Step Guide

Exercise: Setting Up a Reference List in APA


 If you want practice setting up references in APA, create a complete reference for each of the books and journal articles below. Once you have completed this activity, cross-check your references with those given in the box at the bottom of this page called "Response to Activity."

Suggestion: Use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and the resources suggested under "Referencing Resources (with Models)" to help you complete this activity.


(1) A Book

Title: More than Memories: Stories from our Past

Editors: Michael Eskin and Glenda Parsons

Publisher: The Faculty of Human Ecology, The University of Manitoba

Date of publication: 2010

Call # at the UofM library: TX 286 U56 M67 2010

# of pages: 41



(2) A Book

Title: The Human-Powered Home: Choosing Muscles Over Motors

 Author: Tamara Dean

 Publisher: New Society Publishers (P.O. Box 189, Gabriola Island, B.C.)

 Date of publication: 2008

 Call # at the UofM library: TX 298 D43 2008

 # of pages: 260


(3) A Journal Article (hint: with doi)

 Title: “Identification of Essential Food Skills for Skill-based Healthful Eating Programs in Secondary Schools”

 Author: Sandra Fordyce-Voorham from School of Health Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia

 Date of publication: March-April, 2011

 Journal: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, Volume 43, Issue 2

 Pages: 116-122



(4) A Journal Article (hint: without doi)

 Title: Political Advocacy and Research Both Needed to Address Federal-Provincial Gaps in Service: Manitoba First Nations Personal Care Homes

 Author: Margaret Roscelli

 Date of publication: January – February, 2005

 Journal: Canadian Journal of Public Health, Volume 96 

 Pages: S55-59

 No doi

 Retrieved from a database: Proquest, Document # 785350121

Exercise Answers


Dean, T. (2008). The human-powered home: Choosing muscles over motors. Gabriola Island, B.C.: New Society Publishers.

Eskin, M., & Parsons, G. (Eds.). (2010). More than memories: Stories from our past. Winnipeg, Mb: The Faculty of Human Ecology, The University of Manitoba.

Fordyce-Voorham, S. (2011). Identification of essential food skills for skill-based healthful eating programs in secondary schools. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 43(2), 116-122. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2009.12.002

Roscelli, M. (2005). Political advocacy and research both needed to address federal-provincial gaps in service: Manitoba First Nations personal care homes. Canadian Journal of Public Health96, S55-59. Available from Proquest. (785350121)


 ** NOTE: The second and all following lines for each source must be indented 5 spaces.  Unfortunately this particular program will not allow me to do that.

Citing Sources in the Body of the Paper

Citing the material that comes from your sources (e.g. ideas, facts, statistics) is important because by citing, you are telling your reader which ideas are yours and which ideas come from others.

When you cite your sources in the body of your paper, be sure to include

  • the author
  • the date of publication
  • the page number of the cited material (for material that is directly quoted)


There are two ways of setting up in-text references in APA:

(1) Using a parenthetical reference

Example:  Thin-slicing is a term that describes the quick evaluations that people make every day (Gladwell, 2005).

(2) Using a lead-in that names the author and date before the cited material is provided

Example:  Gladwell (2005) argues that "thin-slicing" is a fundamental activity for human beings. He comments that "[w]e thin-slice whenever we meet a new person or have to make sense of something quickly or encounter a novel situation" (pp. 43-44).


Click here for a handout from the Learning Assistance Centre that can help you create lead-in phrases.

Referencing Resources (with Models)

There are so many useful referencing resources for APA style.  The following sources contain models for referencing and are recommended by us.  We often refer to these sites in our work and direct students to the sites.  Browse all of them and see which one might work for you:

How to Prepare Your Paper in APA Format - Step by Step in Word

Mr. David Peak posted this useful YouTube piece and shows how to create a cover page, abstract, and the body of paper in APA 6th Style using Microsoft Word step by step.

Another Video Showing How to Set Up Word Document for APA 6th Style:

For Any Specific Questions About APA 6th Style:

Refer to APA Blog site managed by American Pscyhology Association.  For example, this blog post explains what is expected in a cover page.  Simply use the site's Goolge Search Engine to find the answer to your question.  For example, if you want to know how to cite notes you made from your class leture, type in "class lecture," and see if you can find the answer among the list it made.