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Slavic Studies - Polish Studies Guide: Citing

Citing &
References


Why do you need to use style guides?

Citations identify the source where you originally got your information, whether that is a quote, statistics, or general ideas. Citations are used in almost all forms of scholarly communication, such as papers and presentations. Including citations is essential and ethical, as it gives credit to the original author(s) and tells your reader where they can find out more. Almost all assignments will require that you use citations and that you use them properly. 

Writing and citation styles are used to maintain standards and consistency in scholarly publishing. When writers use the same formatting standards it makes it easier to read, review, and compare literature. Style guides are not just for formatting citations and references. They are used to organize the content for your entire paper. There are three main citations styles used in the Humanities and Social Sciences: APA, Chicago, and MLA. The Health Sciences use AMA and research in the Sciences includes a range of styles depending on the specific discipline. As a student you may be taking courses in multiple subject areas and the differences in styles can be confusing. This page will help you identify the distinguishing features of each style and help you find the guides you need to format your writing.

 

Need help with citations?

Librarians can help with:                                          
  • Using the appropriate citation style
  • Using citation management programs
Writing Tutors can help with:
  • Improving your writing and use of quotes, paraphrasing, and summarizing
  • Knowing where and when to include citations

 

AMA - Vancouver Style

 

Health Science Citation Styles

The Health Sciences uses two main citations styles - APA or AMA. APA is mostly used by Nursing or Rehabilitation Sciences. American Medical Association (AMA) is mostly used by Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy. AMA and National Library of Medicine (NLM) are two common types of the Vancouver style.  Vancouver does not have a specific style guide but only indicates that students must use numbered-author style. This means that the citation in-text is a number and that the reference list is ordered numerically by which reference appears first in the text. We strongly recommend that students use AMA as it has a clear style guide with lots of examples. 

 

In-Text Citation Example AMA Reference List Example
Austerity measures in health and social spending in England since 2010 are projected to cost 120 000 lives by 2020.1
  1. Watkins J, Wulaningsih W, Da Zhou C, et al. Effects of health and social care spending constraints on mortality in England: a time trend analysis. BMJ Open. 2017;7(11):e017722. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017722

 

 

In-text citations go in numerical order, so the first in-text citation provided in your assignment should be 1, then 2, and so on. The exception to this rule is when you need to cite the same source multiple times. In that case, you must use the same number each time. The reference list is then placed in this same numerical order. All items which are cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and all items on the reference list must be cited at least once in the text.

 

Keeping Track of Numbered In-Text Citations

Editing when using a numbered citation style can be difficult, especially when you find yourself moving your text in such a way that you need to reorder your citations. During your final edits, check to see if there are any citations that need to be renumbered, and don’t forget to edit your reference list to match the new order.

Many students use citation management software to help them create and manage citations and references. Citation managers can be especially helpful when using a numbered style, because they can automatically reorder your citations and references as you go. On the other hand, citation managers take time to learn to use. It’s up to you to decide if the amount of time invested in learning the software is worth the time saved for your assignments, but remember that once you learn the software you will be able to use it on all of your written assignments.

APA Publication Manual (7th Edition)

 

APA Style is used for formatting academic writing in the Social Sciences, EducationNursing, and Business. APA uses an Author-Date method for in-text citations and has specific requirements with regards to title page, headers, the abstract, and subheadings. 

APA Manual Online
Print Copy of the APA Publication Manual

Citation Examples Handout - APA 7th Edition

APA 7th in Minutes (Video Tutorials)



In-Text Citation Examples

Book or Article Citation
(Last Name, Year) A new period of industrial history emerged in South Wales after the coal stoppage of 1898. The class struggle of the early 20th Century led to the erosion of traditional Welsh social relations and culture (Evans, 2000).
(Year) According to Evans, a new period of industrial history emerged in South Wales after the coal stoppage of 1898. The class struggle of the early 20th Century led to the erosion of traditional Welsh social relations and culture (2000).
(Last Name, Year, Pages)

Quotation Example

“The six-months’ coal stoppage of 1898 had inaugurated a new era of industrial relations in south Wales. The old centripetal values of Welshness, Nonconformity, class harmony and communal identification were fractured by the new, centrifugal forces of class struggle and industrial conflict” (Evans, 2000, p.72).

 


References Page Examples

Book
Last Name, A.A. (Year of Publication). Title of the book:Subtitle of the book. Publisher. Evans, D. G. (2000). A History of Wales, 1906-2000. University of Wales Press.

 

Article
Last name, A.A. (Year of Publication). Title of the article: Subtitle of the article. Journal Name Volume(Issue), Pages. doi Brody, J. (2015). A philological reading of a poem by Dylan Thomas. Philosophy And Literature 39(2), 495–507. https://doi.org/10.1353/phl.2015.0051


 

Additional Guides Online

 

 

Chicago Manual of Style (17th Edition)

 

Chicago Style is used to format academic writing in subjects such as History, Music, and Classics. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) has two options for citing sources but the Note-Bibliography (NB) method described here is more commonly used. 

The Chicago Manual Online
Citing Alternate Formats - University of Manitoba Library
Print Copy of the Chicago Manual 
Chicago Style - Tips Sheets for Students
Citation Examples Handout - Chicago 17th Edition

 

 

 

In-Text Citation Examples

Paraphrase Examples

A new period of industrial history emerged in South Wales after the coal stoppage of 1898. The class struggle of the early 20th Century led to the erosion of traditional Welsh social relations and culture1.

According to Evans, a new period of industrial history emerged in South Wales after the coal stoppage of 1898. The class struggle of the early 20th Century led to the erosion of traditional Welsh social relations and culture1.

Quotation Example

“The six-months’ coal stoppage of 1898 had inaugurated a new era of industrial relations in south Wales. The old centripetal values of Welshness, Nonconformity, class harmony and communal identification were fractured by the new, centrifugal forces of class struggle and industrial conflict”1.


 

Footnote Examples

Book
  1. First Name Last Name. Title of the Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), Page Numbers.
  1. D. Gareth Evans. A History of Wales, 1906-2000. (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000), 72.

 

Article
  1. First Name Last Name, "Title of the Article," Journal Name Volume, Issue No. (Year): Pages.
  1. Jules Brody, "A Philological Reading of a Poem by Dylan Thomas," Philosophy and Literature 39, no. 2 (2015): 495–507.


 

Bibliography Page Examples

Book
Last Name, First Name. Title of the Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. Evans, D. Gareth. A History of Wales, 1906-2000. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000.

 

Article
Last name, First Name. "Title of the Article." Journal Name Volume, Issue No. (Year): Pages. doi. Brody, Jules. "A Philological Reading of a Poem by Dylan Thomas." Philosophy and Literature 39, no. 2 (2015): 495–507. https://doi.org/10.1353/phl.2015.0051.


 

Additional Online Guides

 

Turabian Manual for Writers (9th Edition)

 

The Turabian Manual for Writers is a comprehensive guide to research and writing compatible with the Chicago Manual of Style. The Turabian guide walks students through the entire research and writing process, from setting the scope of your study, finding and evaluating sources of information, formulating arguments, writing your paper, and formatting Chicago style citations for Humanities and Social Sciences subjects. 

Turabian Quick Citation Guide
Turabian Tip Sheets
Print Copy of the Turabian Style Guide

 

MLA Handbook (9th Edition)

 

MLA Style is often used to format academic writing in English LiteratureLiterary Studies, and Cultural Studies. In-text citations in MLA include the author's name and source page number if applicable but not the date of publication. 

MLA Handbook Plus 
MLA Style Centre Online
Print Copy of the MLA Handbook 9th Edition

Citation Examples Handout - MLA 9th Edition


 

In-Text Citation Examples

Book or Article Citation
(Last Name Page)

Paraphrase Examples

A new period of industrial history emerged in South Wales after the coal stoppage of 1898. The class struggle of the early 20th Century led to the erosion of traditional Welsh social relations and culture (Evans 72).
(Page) According to Evans, a new period of industrial history emerged in South Wales after the coal stoppage of 1898. The class struggle of the early 20th Century led to the erosion of traditional Welsh social relations and culture (72).
(Last Name Pages)

Quotation Example

“The six-months’ coal stoppage of 1898 had inaugurated a new era of industrial relations in south Wales. The old centripetal values of Welshness, Nonconformity, class harmony and communal identification were fractured by the new, centrifugal forces of class struggle and industrial conflict” (Evans 72).


 

Works Cited Page Examples

Book
Last Name, First Name. Title of the Book. Publisher, Year. Evans, D. Gareth. A History of Wales, 1906-2000. University of Wales Press, 2000.

 

Article
Last name, First Name. "Title of the Article." Journal Name, Volume, Issue, Year, Pages. Database, doi. Brody, Jules. "A Philological Reading of a Poem by Dylan Thomas." Philosophy and Literature, vol. 39, no. 2, 2015, pp. 495–507. Literature Online, https://doi.org/10.1353/phl.2015.0051.

 

Additional Online Guides

 

Science Citation Styles

 

What are the common citation styles for Science, Math & Engineering?

The sciences and engineering disciplines do not all follow one citation style nor one writing style format. Some of the science and engineering styles include: American Chemical Society (ACS) style, IEEE (Engineering) style, or the Council of Science editors style. The most common styles used in STEM and their associated disciplines are listed below.

 

Style Discipline
American Chemical Society (ACS) style Chemistry
American Mathematical Society Style Guide Mathematics
Council of Science Editors Various science disciplines
Geological Society of America Geology
IEEE Style Engineering & Computer Science

 

What are the differences between science citation styles and other styles?

 Science and technology citation styles of have the following characteristics. 

  • Some styles do not include the title of the article in the citation.
  • Generally all references to other sources are paraphrased.
  • Direct quotations are not commonly used in science writing and citing.


Many science citation styles include abbreviated journal titles. If the style you are using abbreviates journal titles, you need to use an official abbreviation. Check the style guidelines to find out which journal abbreviation list you should use. 
Some common sites to find journal abbreviations include:

Citing Images

Citing images can be a challenging task. The exact contents and format of the citation will vary depending on what the subject of the image is, where the image was retrieved from, and how much information is available about the image. The following guide provides basic examples for citing images from websites in APA, Chicago, and MLA. However, because the details of a citation shift based on each unique situation, the best practice is to consult the relevant style guide to learn why citations are constructed the way that they are. 

For assistance citing images as artworks or maps see the Examples of Citing Images sheet.  

If an image is included in the text of a paper, the copyright of the image must be checked and proper permissions and attributions should be provided. 

APA

Image from a Website
Creator's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Creation). Title [Format]. Title of the Website. URL McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg

Note: If the image being cited is considered a subsection of a larger work then the title is not italicized. 

Image from a Website (No Title)
Creator's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). [Subject and Format of the Image]. Title of the Website. URL Rinaldi, J. (2016). [Photograph series of a boy who finds his footing after abuse by those he trusted]. The Pulitzer Prizes. https://www.pulitzer.org/winners/jessica-rindaldi

 

Image from a Website (No Author, No Title, No Date)
 [Subject and Format of the Image]. (n.d.). Title of the Website. Retrieval Date (if necessary), URL [X-ray image of a chest]. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/chest-x-rays/multimedia/chest-x-ray/img-20006961

Note: Before using this format, consider whether a group or organization affiliated with the image could reasonably act as author.

Note: Retrieval dates are only necessary for images from unstable sources (websites that change over time and do not archive material).  

 

Additional Resources

Chicago

When citing an image in Chicago the placement of the citation is dependent on whether there are simply references to the image in the work or if the image itself is reproduced in the work.

  • If the image is only referred to and does not appear in your work, you can make the decision whether to include a footnote or simply present information about the image in the text of your work.

  • If the image appears in your work then a citation should be included in the caption of the image and an entry should be made in the bibliography.

 

Image from a Website
Note Creator's Name, Image Title, Date, Medium, Location of Work, URL.  Julian Walker, Protest, October 21, 2011, Photograph,  Flickr, https://www.flickr.com/photos/29093311@N03/6268956289.
Bibliography Last Name, First Name. Image Title. Date. Medium. Location of Work, URL.  Walker, Julian. Protest. October 21, 2011. Photograph, Flickr, https://www.flickr.com/photos/29093311@N03/6268956289. 

Note: If the image being cited is considered a subsection of a larger work, the title is not italicized and is instead enclosed in quotation marks.

Image from a Website (No Title)
Note Creator's Name, Description of the Image, Date, Medium, Location of Work, URL.  Stuart Palley, The Castle Fire burns in the Sierra National Forest, September 13, 2020, Photograph, National Geographic,  https://www.nationalgeographic.com/ science/article/inside-california-race-to-contain-devastating-wildfires.
Bibliography Last Name, First Name. Description of the Image. Date. Medium, Location of Work, URL.  Palley, Stuart. The Castle Fire burns in the Sierra National Forest. September 13, 2020. Photograph, National Geographic,  https://www.nationalgeographic.com/ science/article/inside-california-race-to-contain-devastating-wildfires.

 

Image from a Website (No Author, No Title, No Date)
Note Description of the Image, Medium. Location of Work, Date Accessed, URL.  X-ray image of a chest, Mayo Clinic, Photograph, Accessed May 12, 2023,  https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/chest-x-rays/multimedia/chest-x-ray/img-20006961.
Bibliography Description of the Image. Medium. Location of Work, Date Accessed. URL.  X-ray image of a chest. Mayo Clinic, Photograph, Accessed May 12, 2023. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/chest-x-rays/multimedia/chest-x-ray/img-20006961.

 

Additional Resources

 

MLA

Image from a Website
Creator’s Last Name, First Name. Title. Date. Name of Website, URL.  Silver, Walter. Factory. 1986. New York Public Library Digital Collections, digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/51fd9310-ea71-0131-8221-58d385a7bbd0.

Note: If the image being cited is considered a subsection of a larger work, the title is not italicized and is instead enclosed in quotation marks. 

Image from a Website (No Title)
Creator’s Last Name, First Name. Description of the image. Date. Name of Website, URL.  Palley, Stuart. The Castle Fire burns in the Sierra National Forest. 13 Sept. 2020. National Geographic,                          https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/inside-california-race-to-contain-devastating-wildfires.

 

Image from a Website (No Author, No Title, No Date)
Description of the Image. Name of Website, URL. Date Accessed. X-ray image of a chest. Mayo Clinic,  https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/chest-x-rays/multimedia/chest-x-ray/img-20006961. Accessed 12 May. 2023. 

 

Additional Resources

 

Copyright Considerations

When you use an image in your academic work that you did not produce, you need to consider the copyright status of the image in addition to citation guidelines. There are two main points to consider regarding copyrighted works, permissions and attributions

  • Permissions - an author must seek the permission of the copyright holder before using an image in their work unless the work has entered the public domain, an open license like Creative Commons applies, or use of the image qualifies under a Copyright exception like the Fair Dealing exception described below.

  • Attributions - an author must always include a statement acknowledging the copyright of an image included in their work regardless of the way in which the image is used. The exact format of this statement depends on the style used in the work

Fair Dealing

Work done in an academic environment (especially student work) is often covered by the Fair Dealing exception which allow individuals to use copyrighted material without obtaining permissions from the copyright holder for specific purposes including education, research, and private study. However, you should not assume that Fair Dealing applies to your use of a work just because it was done in an educational setting. 

The following points are considered in determining whether use of a work falls under fair dealing. Not all points must be satisfied in order for use of a work to be deemed fair dealing, and one point alone is not sufficient to deem use of a work fair. 

  • Purpose of the dealing (educational, research, commercial?)

  • Character of the dealing (How widely is the work being distributed? How many instances of the work were reproduced?)

  • Amount of the dealing (How much of the work itself was reproduced?)

  • Alternatives to the dealing (Was it necessary to use this specific work or could another work under different copyright have been used?)

  • The nature of the work (Is the work already widely known? Unpublished?...etc.)

  • Effect of the dealing (Did this reproduction of the work have an effect on demand for the original?)

Even if your use of a work falls under fair dealing and you do not need to seek permission to reproduce it, you must always provide a copyright attribution acknowledging the copyright of the work.

 

Additional Resources

  • Using Images in Assignments tip sheet

  • Further questions concerning copyright can be addressed to Copyright Office (um.copyright@umanitoba.ca)

Reference Managers

 

What are Citation Managers?

Citation or reference managers are apps that can be used to automatically format your references (in almost any style) to include in your assignments by integrating with a word processing program. That means you can change your reference style from APA to MLA to AMA with a click of a button! While you do have to invest some time in learning how to use a citation manager and populate it with your references, it can save you a lot of time when it comes to writing and you can use it throughout your whole academic career. Each tool works differently but the basic idea is that you put your references in – either automatically through a database, by dragging and dropping PDFs, or manually – and then link the citation manager with your assignment to insert formatted citations and a complete bibliography. 

 

Zotero Mendeley EndNote
Free; open-source Free; owned by Elsevier $159.99 for students
Common in arts, humanities, health sciences and sciences Common in sciences and health sciences Common in health sciences
Great for non-traditional references (e.g., musical scores) Great for group work Great for very large sets of references
Desktop and web versions Desktop and web versions Desktop works best
Works with MS Office, LibreOffice, and Google Docs Works with MS Office Works with MS Office and LibreOffice

 

More detailed information on the differences between the tools and how to use them are found on our Intro to Citation Managers.

 

What are Citation Generators?

Citation/Reference generators are online tools that turn some basic information, such as a URL or journal article title, into a formatted citation that can be inserted into your assignments. The quality of these generators vary, and the quality of the citations vary. For example, generating a citation for a journal article in APA is common and likely to be correct but generating a citation for an out-of-print musical score in Vancouver is uncommon and mistakes are more likely. We encourage you to always check the citations that are generated against a style guide to ensure that it is meeting the requirements for your citation style.