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The University of Manitoba campuses are located on original lands of Anishinaabeg, Cree, Oji-Cree, Dakota, and Dene peoples, and on the homeland of the M├ętis Nation. More

RFHS: Race, Racism, Anti-Racism Resources: Journal Articles

Structural Racism and Health Inequities

Gee GC, Ford CL. Structural racism and health inequities: Old issues, new directions. Du Bois Review, 2011;8(1): 115-132. doi: 10.1017/S1742058X11000130

Woodgate RL, Busolo DS, Crockett M, Dean RA, Amaladas MR, Plourde PJ. A qualitative study on African immigrant and refugee families’ experiences of accessing primary health care services in Manitoba, Canada: it’s not easy! Int J Equity Health. 2017;16(1):5. doi:10.1186/s12939-016-0510-x

Hyman I, O’ Campo P, Ansara DL, Siddiqi A, Forte T, Smylie J, Mahabir DF, McKenzie K. Prevalence and Predictors of Everyday Discrimination in Canada: Findings from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Wellesley Institute. 2019.

Mahabir DF, O’Campo P, Lofters A, Shankardass K, Salmon C, Muntaner C. Experiences of everyday racism in Toronto’s health care system: a concept mapping study. Int J Equity Health. 2021;20(1):74. doi:10.1186/s12939-021-01410-9

Nguyen NH, Subhan FB, Williams K, Chan CB. Barriers and Mitigating Strategies to Healthcare Access in Indigenous Communities of Canada: A Narrative Review. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland). 2020;8(2)doi:10.3390/healthcare8020112


Cooper Brathwaite A, Versailles D, Juudi-Hope D, et al. Tackling discrimination and systemic racism in academic and workplace settings. Nursing inquiry. 2022:e12485. doi:10.1111/nin.12485


The Social Construction of Whiteness

White Supremacy

Bonds A, Inwood J. Beyond white privilege: Geographies of white supremacy and settler colonialism. Progress in Human Geography. 2016;40(6):715-733. doi:10.1177/0309132515613166

Okun T. white supremacy culture. dRworks. 1999.

White Privilege and Power

Collins C. What is white privilege, really? Recognizing white privilege begins with truly understanding the term itself. Learning for Justice. 60(Fall 2018).

Douglas, DD, Halas, JM. The wages of whiteness: Confronting the nature of ivory tower racism and the implications for physical education. Sport, Education and Society. 2013;18(4): 453-474. doi: 10.1080/13573322.2011.602395

Schick C. 'By Virtue of Being White': Resistance in anti-racist pedagogy, Race Ethnicity and Education. 2000. 83-101, doi: 10.1080/713693016

Morales EC. Building racial coalitions: Limitations and new directions to teaching ‘white privilege.’ Race and Pedagogy Journal. 2020. 4(3), 1-20.

Mueller JC. Erratum: Producing colorblindness: Everyday mechanisms of white ignorance. Social Problems. 2017. 64(2), 219-238. doi: 10.1093/socpro/spx012

White Fragility

Liebow N, Glazer T. White tears: emotion regulation and white fragility. Inquiry. 2019:1-21. doi:10.1080/0020174X.2019.1610048

DiMascio M. The deafening silence of whites. 2003. The Vermont Connection. 24(1).

Strategies for Change

Recommendations to Faculties of Medicine

BMSAC. BMSAC Recommendations to Canadian faculties of medicine. 2020. Accessed September 16, 2022.

Anti-Racism as a Professional Competence

Hagopian A, West KM, Ornelas IJ, Hart AN, Hagedorn J, Spigner C. Adopting an anti-racism public health curriculum competency: the university of washington experience. Public Health Rep. 2018;133(4):507-513. doi:10.1177/0033354918774791

Lee SA, Farrell M. Is Cultural Competency a Backdoor to Racism. Anthropology News. 2006; 47(3):9-10. doi: 10.1525/an.2006.47.3.9

Sharda S, Dhara A, Alam F. Not neutral: reimagining antiracism as a professional competence. CMAJ. 2021;193(3):E101-E102. doi:10.1503/cmaj.201684

Maar M, Bessette N, McGregor L, Lovelace A, Reade M. Co-creating Simulated Cultural Communication Scenarios with Indigenous Animators: An Evaluation of Innovative Clinical Cultural Safety Curriculum. Journal of medical education and curricular development. 2020;7:2382120520980488. doi:10.1177/2382120520980488

Responding to Racism

Finch SD. 9 Phrases Allies can say when getting called out instead of getting defensive. 2017. everyday feminism.

Racism, Ableism, Disabilities, and BIPOC Persons with Disabilities

Annamma SA, Ferri BA, Connor DJ. Disability critical race theory: exploring the intersectional lineage, emergence, and potential futures of discrit in education. Review of Research in Education. 2018;42(1):46-71. doi:10.3102/0091732X18759041

Dunhamn J, Harris J, Jarrett S, et al. Developing and reflecting on a black disability studies pedagogy: work from the national black disability coalition. DSQ. 2015;35(2). doi:10.18061/dsq.v35i2.4637

Frederick A, Shifrer D. Race and disability: from analogy to intersectionality. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity. 2019;5(2):200-214. doi:10.1177/2332649218783480

Goode TD, Carter-Pokras OD, Horner-Johnson W, Yee S. Parallel tracks: reflections on the need for collaborative health disparities research on race/ethnicity and disability. Medical Care. 2014;52(Supplement 3):S3-S8. doi:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000201

Hahmann T. Changes to health, access to health services, and the ability to meet financial obligations among Indigenous people with long-term conditions or disabilities since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. StatsCan. 2021.

Hahmann T, Badets N, Hughes J. Indigenous people with disabilities in Canada: First Nations people living off reserve, Métis and Inuit aged 15 and older. StatsCan. 2019.

Lakhani A, Cullen J, Townsend C. The cost of disability for indigenous people: a systematic review. Journal of Social Inclusion. 2017;8(1):34. doi:10.36251/josi.116

Lukin J. Disability and blackness. In Davis LJ (Ed). The disability studies reader (4th ed). Routlege.

Mingus M. This why consent doesn't exist for disabled folks. Everyday Feminism.

Mingus M, Glover C. Disability Justice. Project LETS. Accessed February 2, 2023.

Reynolds JM. Disability and white supremacy. Critical Philosophy of Race. 2022;10(1):48-70. doi:10.5325/critphilrace.10.1.0048

Schalk S. Contextualizing black disability and the culture of dissemblance. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 2020;45(3):535-540. doi:10.1086/706514

Schalk S, Kim JB. Integrating race, transforming feminist disability studies. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 2020;46(1):31-55. doi:10.1086/709213

Shifrer D, Muller C, Callahan R. Disproportionality and learning disabilities: parsing apart race, socioeconomic status, and language. J Learn Disabil. 2011;44(3):246-257. doi:10.1177/0022219410374236

Systemic Racism in the Health Education Professions

Barriers to BIPOC Learners

Zewude R, Sharma M. Critical race theory in medicine. CMAJ. 2021;193(20):E739-E741. doi:10.1503/cmaj.210178

van Ryn M, Burgess DJ, Dovidio JF, et al. The impact of racism on clinician cognition, behavior, and clinical decision making. Du Bois Rev. 2011;8(1):199-218. doi:10.1017/S1742058X11000191

The Politics of Representation

Pattani R, Burns KEA, Lorens E, Straus SE, Hawker GA. Effect of race, gender identity, and their intersection on career satisfaction: A cross-sectional survey of academic physicians. Medical teacher. 2022;44(6):614-621. doi:10.1080/0142159X.2021.2014799


Racialization and Racism

James, L, Abudiab, S, Said Omar, S. Racialization and racism: Uncovering the implicit in rehabilitation sciences and research. rehabINK, 2019; 1(7).

Race, Racism and Health

Tippett, K. Notice the rage, notice the silence and interview with Resmaa Menakem. The Center Post. 2020.

Karani R, Varpio L, May W, Horsley T, Chenault J, Miller KH, O’Brien B. Commentary: Racism and bias in health professions education: how educators, faculty developers, and researchers can make a difference. Acad Med. 2017;92(11):S1-S6. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001928.

Timothy, RK. Racism impacts your health. The Conversation. 2018.

Yusuf, HE, Copeland-Linder, N, Young, AS, Matson, PA, Trent, M. The Impact of racism on the health and wellbeing of Black, Indigenous and other youth of color (BIPOC Youth). Child Adolescent Psychiatric Clin N Am. 2022;31(2):261-275. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2021.11.005

Elmhoff, I. Why words matter: The negative impacts of racial microaggressions on Indigenous and other racialized people. The Conversation. 2021.

Mahabir, D. F., O’Campo, P., Lofters, A., Shankardass, K., Salmon, C. & Muntaner, C. (2021). Experiences of everyday racism in Toronto’s health care system: a concept mapping study. Int J Equity Health. 20(74), 1-15. doi: 10.1186/s12939-021-01410-9

El-Dassouki N, Wong D, Toews DM, et al. Barriers to Accessing Kidney Transplantation Among Populations Marginalized by Race and Ethnicity in Canada: A Scoping Review Part 1-Indigenous Communities in Canada. Can J Kidney Health Dis. 2021;8:2054358121996835. doi:10.1177/2054358121996835

Waldron I. Environmental Racism and Climate Change: Determinants of Health in Mi’kmaw and African Nova Scotian Communities. 2022. Accessed September 23, 2022.

Settler Colonialism

Pon G, Gosine K, Phillips D. Immediate response: addressing anti-native and anti-black racism in child welfare. IJCYFS. 2011;2(3/4):385. doi:10.18357/ijcyfs23/420117763

Matheson K, Seymour A, Landry J, Ventura K, Arsenault E, Anisman H. Canada's Colonial Genocide of Indigenous Peoples: A Review of the Psychosocial and Neurobiological Processes Linking Trauma and Intergenerational Outcomes. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2022;19(11)doi:10.3390/ijerph19116455



Einwohner RL,  Kelly-Thompson K, Sinclair-Chapman V, et al. Active Solidarity: Intersectional Solidarity in Action. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society. 2021; 28(1); 704-29. doi: 10.1093/sp/jxz052

Kluttz J, Walker J, Walter P. Unsettling allyship, unlearning and learning towards decolonizing solidarity. Studies in the Education of Adults. 2020;52(1):49-66. doi:10.1080/02660830.2019.1654591

Zafran H. Echopoetics and unbelonging: Making sense of reconciliation in academia. Transcultural psychiatry. 2021:13634615211015091. doi:10.1177/13634615211015091

Interprofessional Collaboration

Cahn PS. How interprofessional collaborative practice can help dismantle systemic racism. Journal of Interprofessional Care. 2020;34(4):431-434. doi:10.1080/13561820.2020.1790224

Anti-Black Racism and its Impact on Diverse Black Lives

In Health Care

CMAJ Special Issue on Anti-Black Racism in Healthcare. October 31, 2022. Volume 194; Issue 42.

Nnorom O, Findlay N, Lee-Foon NK, et al. Dying to Learn: A Scoping Review of Breast and Cervical Cancer Studies Focusing on Black Canadian Women. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2019;30(4):1331-1359. doi:10.1353/hpu.2019.0100

Konkor I, Mkandawire P, Luginaah I, et al. Access to healthcare services among heterosexual Black men in Ontario, Canada. Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services. 2021;20(1):58-75. doi:10.1080/15381501.2021.1908923

Ladha R. Shades of Care: Understanding how BIPOC mothers and children experience paediatric care in Ontario, Canada. 2021. UWSpace.

Maddalena V, Bernard WT, Davis-Murdoch S, Smith D. Awareness of palliative care and end-of-life options among african canadians in nova scotia. J Transcult Nurs. 2013;24(2):144-152. doi:10.1177/1043659612472190

Djiadeu P, Yusuf A, Ongolo-Zogo C, et al. Barriers in accessing HIV care for Francophone African, Caribbean and Black people living with HIV in Canada: a scoping review. BMJ Open. 2020;10(8):e036885. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-036885

Etowa J, Wiens J, Bernard WT, Clow B. Determinants of Black women's health in rural and remote communities. Can J Nurs Res. 2007;39(3):56-76.

Fante-Coleman T, Jackson-Best F. Barriers and facilitators to accessing mental healthcare in canada for black youth: a scoping review. Adolescent Res Rev. 2020;5(2):115-136. doi:10.1007/s40894-020-00133-2

Kogan CS, Noorishad P-G, Ndengeyingoma A, Guerrier M, Cenat JM. Prevalence and correlates of anxiety symptoms among Black people in Canada: A significant role for everyday racial discrimination and racial microaggressions. Journal of affective disorders. 2022;308:545-553. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2022.04.110

Cenat JM, Hajizadeh S, Dalexis RD, Ndengeyingoma A, Guerrier M, Kogan C. Prevalence and Effects of Daily and Major Experiences of Racial Discrimination and Microaggressions among Black Individuals in Canada. Journal of interpersonal violence. 2022;37(17-18):NP16750-NP16778. doi:10.1177/08862605211023493

Post-Secondary Institutions

Gillborn D. heads i win, tails you lose : anti-black racism as fluid, relentless, individual and systemic. Peabody Journal of Education. 2018;93(1):66-77. doi:10.1080/0161956X.2017.1403178

Lindsey TB. Ain’t nobody got time for that: anti-black girl violence in the era of #sayhername. Urban Education. 2018;53(2):162-175. doi:10.1177/0042085917747098

Park AS, Bahia J. Exploring the experiences of black, indigenous and racialized graduate students: The classroom as a space of alterity, hostility and pedagogical labour. Canadian review of sociology. 2022;59(2):138-155. doi:10.1111/cars.12373

Hantke S, St Denis V, Graham H. Racism and antiracism in nursing education: confronting the problem of whiteness. BMC nursing. 2022;21(1):146. doi:10.1186/s12912-022-00929-8


Global anti-Black Racism

Fernander A. What does critical race theory have to do with academic medicine? JNMA. 2022;114(3):274-277. doi:10.1016/j.jnma.2022.01.013

Green K-A, Wolinsky R, Parnell SJ, et al. Deconstructing Racism, Hierarchy, and Power in Medical Education: Guiding Principles on Inclusive Curriculum Design. Academic Med. 2022;97(6):804-811. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000004531

Gilliam CA, Olszewski AE, McDade JE, et al. Grounded in Justice: An Equity Framework for Chief Residents. Academic Med. 2021;96(12):1638-1642. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000004190

Racism and Trauma

Kinouani G. Silencing, power and racial trauma in groups. Group Analysis. 2020;53(2):145-161. doi:10.1177/0533316420908974

Williams MT, Roy AK, MacIntyre MP, Faber S. The Traumatizing Impact of Racism in Canadians of Colour. Curr Trauma Rep. 2022. 8:17-34. doi: 10.1007/s40719-022-00225-5

Bryant-Davis T, Ocampo C. Racist incident–based trauma. The Counseling Psychologist. 2005;33(4):479-500. doi:10.1177/0011000005276465

Bryant-Davis T, Ocampo, C. The trauma of racism: Implications for Counseling, research, and education. The Counseling Psychologist. 2005; 33(4)5, 574-578. doi:10.1177/0011000005276581

Williams T. The riot within: The pain and power of when they see us and why Black traumatic stories matter. Midnight and Indigo. 2020.

Franklin AJ, Boyd-Franklin N, Kelly S. Racism and invisibility: race-related stress, emotional abuse and psychological trauma for people of color. Journal of Emotional Abuse. 2006;6(2-3):9-30. doi:10.1300/J135v06n02_02

Critical Race Studies

Bonilla-Silva E. Feeling Race: Theorizing the racial economy of emotions. American Sociological Review. 2019;84(1):1-25. doi: 10.1177/0003122418816958

Muhr SL. Entitlement racism and its intersections: An interview with Philomena Essed, social justice scholar. Ephemera: Theory & Politics in Organization. 2018;18(1):183-201.

Barceló NE, Shadravan S. Race, metaphor, and myth in academic medicine. Acad Psychiatry. 2021;45(1):100-105. doi:10.1007/s40596-020-01331-9

Henry A. ‘We especially welcome applications from members of visible minority groups’: reflections on race, gender and life at three universities. Race Ethnicity and Education. 2015;18(5):589-610. doi:10.1080/13613324.2015.1023787
Ahmed S. The nonperformativity of antiracism. Meridians. 2020;19(S1):196-218. doi:10.1215/15366936-8565957

Essed P. Towards a methodology to identify continuing forms of everyday discrimination. 2001.
Dhamoon RK. A Feminist Approach to Decolonizing Anti-Racism: Rethinking Transnationalism, Intersectionality, and Settler Colonialism. Feral feminisms. 2015.
Sefa Dei GJ. Integrative anti-racism: Intersection of race, class and gender. Race, Gender & Class. 1995; 2(3): 11-30.
Bell LA. Telling Tales: What stories can teach us about racism. Race Ethnicity and Education. 2003;6(1):3-28. doi:10.1080/1361332032000044567

Mohamed T, Beagan BL. ‘Strange faces’ in the academy: experiences of racialized and Indigenous faculty in Canadian universities. Race Ethnicity and Education. 2019;22(3):338-354. doi:10.1080/13613324.2018.1511532