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Linguistics: LING 1360

Canadian Census

  • Statistics Canada conducts a national census of population and census of agriculture every five years.
  • Census provides a snapshot picture of the demographic and socioeconomic information of the population.
  • It's a vital source of information for planning public services such as health care, education and transportation, determining federal transfer payments, the number of Members of the Parliament for each province and territory, and researchers in various capacities.
  • The Census of Population gathers data on a variety of topics, including:
    • Indigenous peoples
    • Education, training and learning
    • Ethnic diversity and immigration
    • Families, households and housing
    • Income, pensions, spending and wealth
    • Labour
    • Languages
    • Population and demography

Compendium of Language Management in Canada ( U of Ottawa)


  • An interactive map application to locate a specific geographic location.  You can use the first three letters of a postal code (Forward Station Area, Census 2006 & 2011) or use a postal code, a census dissemination area (Census 2006, 2011, & 2016).  Identify the last four digits of the census dissemination code.  For example,  46110384 means 46 (Province of Manitoba), 11 (Census Division No. 11 = Winnipeg [City] and Headingley RM) and the remainder of the number, 0384, is the code you can use with the Canadian Census Analyzer.

Canadian Census Analyzer

  • The Canadian Census Analyser provides access to a variety of commonly requested Canadian Census data and documentation, produced by Statistics Canada.  It includes Profile data at several levels of geography, and for several censuses, in some cases going back to 1961.  It also provides access to the Census Individuals public use microdata files, and the Postal code conversion file.  Users can create subsets and then output the results in a variety of formats.

Selected Sources:

Duff, P. A., & Ava, B.-Z. (2017). Demographics and Heritage Languages in Canada: Policies, Patterns, and Prospects. In The Routledge Handbook of Heritage Language Education. Routledge. (available from Google Books).

Duff, P. A., & Li, D. (2009). Indigenous, Minority, and Heritage Language Education in Canada: Policies, Contexts, and Issues. The Canadian Modern Language Review66(1), 1–8.

Harrison, B. (2000). Passing on the language: Heritage language diversity in Canada. Canadian Social Trends, August 2000, no.58, 14-19.

Lachapelle, R., & Lepage, J.-F. (2010). Languages in Canada: 2006 census. Canadian Heritage.

Ricento, T. (2019). Language Politics and Policies : Perspectives From Canada and the United States. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from

Marmen, L., Corbeil, J.-P., Canada, Canadian Heritage, & Statistics Canada. (2004). Languages in Canada: 2001 census. Canadian Heritage.

Nagy, N. (2021). Heritage Languages in Canada. In S. Montrul & M. Polinsky (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Heritage Languages and Linguistics (Cambridge Handbooks in Language and Linguistics, pp. 178-204). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108766340.010 (Not accessible but check references.)

Statistics Canada. (2017, August 2). Census in Brief: Linguistic diversity and multilingualism in Canadian homes

Statistics Canada. (2018, February 21). The evolution of language populations in Canada, by mother tongue, from 1901 to 2016

Statistics Canada. (2020, August 4). Interpreting and presenting census language data

How to Document Census Data?

How to Document Your Sources:

The Writing Tutor Program - Academic Learning Centre

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  • The tutor will ask you to share your assignment description.
  • Prepare your draft in order to receive the tutor's feedback.

Useful Sources & References

Research & Writing Tips

  • Refer to the assignment's guidelines.
  • Taking Notes by Margaret Procter, University of Toronto Writing Centre
  • Writing & Revising by Margaret Procter, University of Toronto Writing Centre

So EASY to Plagiarise and How to AVOID It:

References for Citation Styles

MLA Style

APA Style

Note:  If you are using an epub title on the EbscoHost platform, it may not display page numbers.  If you can't find page number(s) in the epub title to cite, just cite the chapter, e.g., (Smith ch. 2)  in MLA and (Smith, ch.2) in APA.  Or if you can find PDF edition, use it.

Blog Post | YouTube | Twitter Post (APA)

Blog Post/Web Site

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of blog post. Blog Name. https://xxxxx

Author’s last nameInitial(s). [or the name of the body responsible]. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of workWebsitehttps://URL


Fisher D. R. (2017, January 26).  The women’s march was only the beginning. Context:  Sociology for the Public.


Channel. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of video [Video]. Website. https://URL


Scribbr. (2020, August 20). Develop a theoretical framework in 3 steps [Video]. YouTube.


Author name, Initials [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of tweet [Tweet]. Twitter. URL


Trump, D. J. [@realDonaldTrump]. (2020, September 28). FAKE NEWS! [Tweet]. Twitter.

Note:  Donal Trump’s twitter account has been suspended.  The 2nd line should be indented.

Citation Tool