This page focuses on using Census data to find statistics on heritage language speakers in Canada, Manitoba, and Winnipeg.
Other key resources for your assignments can be found on the other pages of this guide. Find a link to Ethnologue on the Getting Started page, and WALS on the Reference & Multimedia page of the guide. Use the search box on the library's homepage to find further information.
To find statistics from the 2021 Census on heritage language speakers in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Canada, you will use Census Profiles.
An optional additional step is to explore the Census tables which pertain to heritage languages. I suggest selecting the topic of Language. Once on the Languages Census tables page, you can either scroll to explore, or choose "Browse by variables." Whichever method you choose, remember these principles:
If you're interested in exploring older Census profiles, they are available from 2001, but they often don't report the same level of detail for each variable. Comparable statistics can be found from 2011 onward. If you choose to explore older Census profiles, follow the same 3 principles described in the "Exploring 2021 Census Tables (Optional)" section above.
When using Census Profiles or Data Tables, scroll down to the bottom of the page to find the section called "How to cite." This contains all the information Statistics Canada wants you to include in your reference list, but is not necessarily formatted as per APA. It's up to you to reformat this in APA. This page from Statistics Canada provides several examples in APA, which you can use to build your reference.
Duff, P. A., & Ava, B.-Z. (2017). Demographics and Heritage Languages in Canada: Policies, Patterns, and Prospects. In The Routledge Handbook of Heritage Language Education. Routledge. (available from Google Books).
Duff, P. A., & Li, D. (2009). Indigenous, Minority, and Heritage Language Education in Canada: Policies, Contexts, and Issues. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 66(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.66.1.001
Harrison, B. (2000). Passing on the language: Heritage language diversity in Canada. Canadian Social Trends, August 2000, no.58, 14-19. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/11-008-x/2000002/article/5165-eng.pdf?st=9dy
Lachapelle, R., & Lepage, J.-F. (2010). Languages in Canada: 2006 census. Canadian Heritage. https://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/pc-ch/CH3-2-8-2010-eng.pdf
Ricento, T. (2019). Language Politics and Policies : Perspectives From Canada and the United States. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from http://uml.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=2172620&site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_211
Marmen, L., Corbeil, J.-P., Canada, Canadian Heritage, & Statistics Canada. (2004). Languages in Canada: 2001 census. Canadian Heritage. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/96-326-x/96-326-x2001001-eng.pdf
Nagy, N. (2021). Heritage Languages in Canada. In S. Montrul & M. Polinsky (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Heritage Languages and Linguistics (Cambridge Handbooks in Language and Linguistics, pp. 178-204). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108766340.010 (Not accessible but check references.)
Statistics Canada. (2017, August 2). Census in Brief: Linguistic diversity and multilingualism in Canadian homes. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/as-sa/98-200-x/2016010/98-200-x2016010-eng.cfm
Statistics Canada. (2018, February 21). The evolution of language populations in Canada, by mother tongue, from 1901 to 2016. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-630-x/11-630-x2018001-eng.htm
Statistics Canada. (2020, August 4). Interpreting and presenting census language data. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-657-x/89-657-x2020003-eng.htm