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The University of Manitoba campuses are located on original lands of Anishinaabeg, Cree, Oji-Cree, Dakota, and Dene peoples, and on the homeland of the Métis Nation. More

Kivalliq Health Information Service: Nutrition in the North

Nutrition in the North


Health Canada. Canada's Dietary Guidelines. Government of Canada. 2019. (Inuktitut)

Health Canada. Eating well with Canada's food guide - First Nations, Inuit, Métis. Health Canada. 2007.

Health Canada. Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide: A resource for educators and communicators. Health Canada. 2011.

Nunavut Department of Health. Nutrition Fact Sheet Series: Inuit Traditional Foods. Government of Nunavut. 2013.

Nunavut Department of Health. Nunavut Food Guide. (FrenchInuktitut)

Skipper A, et al. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Malnutrition (undernutrition) screening tools for all adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2020.


Gagn D, et al. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012; 71(10). 

Goettke E, et al. "It's all a spider web": a qualitative study of the meanings of food and healthy eating in an Indigenous community. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2019; 78(1):1648969.

Hu X, et al. High selenium exposure lowers the odds ratios for hypertension, stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with mercury exposure among Inuit in Canada. Environ Int. 2017; 102(May): 200-6.

Hu X, et al. Inuit country food diet pattern is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2018; 8(7):1237-48.

Laird B, et al. Dietary advice on Inuit traditional food use needs to balance benefits and risks of mercury, selenium, and n3 fatty acids. The Journal of Nutrition. 2013; 143(6): 923-30.

Labont M, et al. Traditional dietary pattern is associated with elevated cholesterol among the Inuit of Nunavik. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2014; 114(8): 1208-15.

Lemire M, et al. Local country food sources of methylmercury, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids in Nunavik, Northern Quebec. Science of the Total Environment. 2015; 509-510(March): 248-59. 

Martinez-Levasseur L, et al. Towards a better understanding of the benefits and risks of country food consumption using the case of walruses in Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada). Sci Total Environ. 2020.

Ratelle M, et al. Food frequency questionnaire assessing traditional food consumption in Dene/Metis communities, Northwest Territories, Canada. 2020.

Senftleber N, et al. Traditional diet influences erythrocyte fatty acids differentially across genetic variants of fatty acid metabolism: the Greenlandic Inuit health in transition cohort (FS11-02-19). Curr Dev Nutr. 2019; 3(Suppl 1).

Sheehy T, et al. Traditional food consumption is associated with better diet quality and adequacy among Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015; 66(4): 445-51.


DiNicolantonio J, et al. The introduction of refined carbohydrates in the Alaskan inland Inuit diet may have led to an increase in dental caries, hypertension adn atherosclerosis. Open Heart. 2018; 5(2):e000776.

Fares J, et al. Implications of the nutrition transition for vitamin D intake and status in Aboriginal groups in the Canadian Arctic. Nutr Review. 2016; 74(9): 571-83.

Gagné D, et al. Consumption of tomato products is associated with lower blood mercury levels in Inuit preschool childrenFood Chem Toxicol. 2013;52(Jan):404-10.

Gagné D, et al. Impact of a childcare centre nutrition program on nutrient intakes in Nunavik Inuit children. Canadian Journal of Dietetic. 2013;74(1): e311-7.

Girard C, et al. Gut Microbiome of the Canadian Arctic Inuit. mSphere. 2017; 2(1):e00297-16.

Jamieson J, et al. Higher n3-fatty acid status is associated with lower risk of iron depletion among food insecure Canadian Inuit women. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:289.

Kolahdooz F, et al. Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities. Nutr J. 2014;13:68.

Mead E, er al. A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. health Educ Behav. 2013;40(5):592-602.

Pakseresht M, et al. Improving vitamin A and D intake among Inuit and Inuvialuit in Arctic Canada: evidence from the Healthy Foods North study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015; 69(5): 453-9.

Rudkowska I, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids, polymorphisms and lipid related cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Inuit population. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2013; 10: 26.

Sharma S, et al. Nutrient intakes, major food sources and dietary inadequacies of Inuit adults living in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. 2013; 26(6): 578-86.

Sefidbakht S, et al. High protein and cholesterol intakes associated with emergence of glucose intolerance in a low-risk Canadian Inuit population. Public Health Nutr. 2016:19(10):1804-11.

Sheehy T, et al. Changing dietary patterns in the Canadian Arctic: frequency of consumption of foods and beverages by inuit in three Nunavut communities. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2014;35(2):244-52.

Sheehy T, et al. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and nontraditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada. Nutr J. 2013; 12(Jun):70.

Schaebel L, et al. The influence of persistent organic pollutants in the traditional Inuit diet on markers of inflammation. PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0177781.

Willows N, et al. Modelling optimal diets for quality and cost: examples from Inuit and First Nations communities in Canada. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2019;; 44(7): 696-703.

Patient Resources

Government of Nunavut. Inuit Traditional Foods: Nutrition Fact Sheet Series.

Health Canada. Canadian Nutrient File. (Search by Food)

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. Nuluaq: Nutrition North Canada Program.

Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services. Healthy Eating.

Nunavut Department of Health. Healthy Living. (French, Inuktitut)

Nunavut Department of Health. Nunavut Food Guide (FrenchInuktitut)

Nunavut Department of Health. Recipes - Healthy Living.

Food Insecurity

Bradette-Laplante M, et al. Food insecurity and psychological distress in Inuit adolescents ot Nunavik. Public Health Nutr. 2020; May 27:1-11.

Collings P et al. Country food sharing networks, household structure, and implications for understanding food insecurity in Arctic Canada. Ecol Food Nutr. 2016; 55(1):30-49.

Ford J, et al. Food insecurity in Nunavut: Are we going from bad to worse? CMAJ. 2019; 191(20):E550-E551.

Guo Y, et al. Seasonal prevalence and determinants of food insecurity in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2015;74(Aug):27284.

Herrmann T, et al. Tackling the question of micronutrients intake as one of the main levers in terms of Inuit food security. Curr opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2020; 23(1):59-63.

Huet C, et al. Food insecurity and food consumption by season in households with children in an Arctic city: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17(1):578.

Rosol R, et al. Impacts of decline harvest of country food on nutrient intake among Inuit in Arctic Canada: impact of climate change and possible adaptation plan. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75(Jul):31127.

St-Germain A, et al. Food insecurity in Nunavut following the introduction of Nutrition North Canada. CMAJ. 2019; 191(20): E552-E448.

Walch A, et al. A scoping review of traditional food security in Alaska. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018; 77(1): 1419678.

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