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The University of Manitoba campuses are located on original lands of Anishinaabeg, Cree, Oji-Cree, Dakota, and Dene peoples, and on the homeland of the Métis Nation. More

Kivalliq Health Information Service: Infectious Diseases

Infectious Diseases



Government of Canada. Canadian Immunization Guide. 2020.

MacDonald N, et al. Canada's eight-component vaccine safety system: A primer for health care workers. Paediatrics & Child Health. 2017.

Patient Resources

Government of Canada. A Parent's Guide to Vaccinations. 2018. (French)

Government of Canada. Not just for kids: An adult guide to vaccination. 2017.

Government of Canada. Teens, meet Vaccines. 2017.

Government of Canada. Don't Wait Vaccinate! A Guide to Immunization for Inuit Parents and Caregivers: Health Canada. 2010. (Inuktitut)

Government of Canada. Your child's vaccination schedule. (2018).

Antimicrobial Resistance


Cosgrove S, et al. Guidance for the knowledge and skills required for antimicrobial stewardship leaders. 2014. Infet Control osp Epidemiol;35(12):1444-51.

Levy Hara G, et al. Ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitalised patients: a consensus from the Antimicrobial Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society of Chemotherapy. 2016. Int J Antimicrob Agents;48(3):239-46.

Public Health Agency of Canada. Antibiotic (antimicrobial) resistance. 2017.


Allcock S, et al. Antimicrobial resistance in human populations: challenges and opportunities. 2017. Glob Health Epidemiol Genom.

Elias C, et al. Guideline recommendations and antimicrobial resistance: the need for a change. 2017. BMJ Open; 7(7).

Grant J, et al. Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Utilization in Canada. 2014.

Kwon K. Implementation of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in End-of-Life Care. 2019. Infect Chemother; 51(2):89-97.

Levin B, et al. A model-guided analysis and perspective on the evolution and epidemiology of antibiotic resistance and its future. 2014. Curr Opin Microbiol; Jun(19):83-9.

Rogers Van Katwyk S, et al. Government policy interventions to reduce human antimicrobial use: A systematic review and evidence map. PLoS Med. 2019. 16(6).

Smith C, et al. Canadian physicians' knowledge and counseling practices related to antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance: Two-cycle national survey. 2017. Can Fam Physician; 63(12):e526-35.

Waglechner N, et al. Antibiotic resistance: it's bad, but why isn't it worse? 2017. BMC Biol; 15(1):84.

Webster P. Should Canada focus on antimicrobial resistance? 2017. CMAJ; 189(2):E82-3.

HIV in the North

Barlow K, et al. Culturally competent service provision issues experienced by Aboriginal people living with HIV/Aids. Pimatisiwin. 2008;6(2):155-80.

Corosky G, et al. Staying healthy "under the sheets": Inuit youth experiences of access to sexual and reproductive health and rights in Arviat, Nunavut, Canada. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016;75:31812.

Duncan K, et al. HIV incidence and prevalence among Aboriginal peoples in Canada. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(1):214-27.

Healey G. Inuit parent perspectives on sexual health communication with adolescent children in Nunavut: "It's kinda hard for me to try to find the words." Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73.

Healey G. Youth perspectives on sexually transmitted infections and sexual health in Northern Canada and implications for public health practice. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016;75.

Jessen C, et al. What is missing? Addressing the complex issues surrounding sexual and reproductive health in the circumpolar north. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016;75.

Kumar A. HIV/AIDS Risk and Prevention Issues Among Inuit Living in Nunavut Territory of Canada. In Vivo. 2016;30(6):905-16.

Larcombe L, et al. A Dene First Nation's community readiness assessment to take action against HIV/AIDS: a pilot project. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2019;78(1).

Law, Dionne, et al. Sexual health and sexually transmitted infections in the North American Arctic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(1):4-9.

Minichiello V, et al. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in global indigenous populations: data availability and gaps. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(10):759-68.

PHAC. HIV/AIDS EPI Updates: Chapter 8: HIV/AIDS among Aboriginal People in Canada. 2014.

Rand J. Inuit women's stories of strength: informing Inuit community-based HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016;75.

Rebekah J. Building community-based HIV and STI prevention programs on the tundra: drawing on Inuit women's strengths and resiliencies. 2014
Rosen N, et al. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma in the Inuit of northern Quebec. J AM Acad Dermatol. 2005;52(2 Suppl 1):31-4.

Steenbeek A, et al. Determinants of sexually transmitted infections among Canadian Inuit adolescent populations. Public Health Nurs. 2006;23(6):531-4.

Steenbeek A. Empowering health promotion: a holistic approach in preventing sexually transmitted infections among first nations and inuit adolescents in Canada. J Holist Nurs. 2004;22(3):254-66.

Steenbeek A. An epidemiological survey of Chlamydial & Gonococcal infections in a Canadian Arctic Community: determinants of sexually transmitted infections among remote Inuit populations. 2005.

Worthington C, et al. HIV testing experiences of Aboriginal youth in Canada: service implications. AIDS Care. 2010;22(10):1269-76.


National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease. HIV/STBBI Prevention and Control.
World Health Organization. HIV.



Immunization Expert Work Group. Committee Opinion No. 704: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;129(6):e173-8.

PHAC. Canadian Guidelines on Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2018.

Salvadori M, et al. Human papillomavirus virus for children and adolescents. Paediatr Child Health. 2018;23(4):262-265.

Sanfilippo J, et al. HPV One Two Three. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2015;28(3):125-6.

WHO. WHO Guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer prevention. 2013.

Workowski K, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64(RR-03);1-137.

HPV in the North

Bennett R, et al. Incidence, persistence, and determinants of human papillomavirus in a population of Inuit women in northern Quebec. Sex Transm Dis. 2015;42(5):272-8.

Brassard P, et al. Factors associated with human papillomavirus infection among women in the Northwest Territories. Can J Public Health. 2012;103(4):e282-7.

Cerigo H, et al. Awareness and knowledge about human papillomavirus among Inuit women in Nunavik, Quebec. J Community Health. 2011;36(1):56-62.

Cerigo H, et al. Dry self-sampling versus provider-sampling of cervicovaginal specimens for human papillomavirus detection in the Inuit population of Nunavik, Quebec. J Med Screen. 2012;19(1):42-8.

Cergo H, et al. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening uptake among Inuit women in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:438.

Cerigo H, et al. Inuit women's attitudes and experiences towards cervical cancer and prevention strategies in Nunavik, Quebec. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71.

Dunne E, et al. HPV vaccines for circumpolar health: summary of plenary session, "Opportunities for Prevention: Global HPV Vaccine" and "Human Papillomavirus Prevention: The Nordic Experience". Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72(1):21070.

Gauthier B, et al. Human papillomavirus variants among Inuit women in northern Quebec, Canada. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2015;74:29482.

Hamlin-Douglas L, et al. Determinants of human papillomavirus infection among Inuit women of northern Quebec, Canada. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37(6):377-81.

Hamlin-Douglas L, et al. Prevalence and age distribution of human papillomavirus infection in a population of Inuit women in Nunavik, Quebec. 2008;17(11):3141-9.

Healey S, et al. Human papillomavirus and cervical dysplasia in Nunavut: prelude to a screening strategy. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl 2):199-201.

Healey S, et al. Oncogenic human papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in Aboriginal women of Nunavut, Canada. Sex Transm Dis. 2001;28(12):694-700.Kelly J, et al. HPV genotypes detected in cervical cancers from Alaska Native women, 1980-2007. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72.

Jiang Y, et al. Type-specific prevalence of Human Papillomavirus infection among women in the Northwest Territories, Canada. 20114(5-6):219-27.

Metcalfe S, et al. The association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G polymorphisms and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Inuit women of northern Quebec. Hum Immunol. 2013;74(12):1610-5.

Sebbelov A, et al. Comparison of human papillomavirus genotypes in archival cervical cancer specimens from Alaska natives, Greenland natives and Danish Caucasians. Microbes infect. 2000;2(2):121-6.

Systematic Reviews

DèAddario M, et al. Two-dose schedules for human papillomavirus vaccine: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2017;35(22):2892-2901

Koliopoulos G, et al. Cytology versus HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in the general population. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;8(8).

Lin C, et al. Human papillomavirus types from infection to cancer in the anus, according to sex and HIV status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018;18(2):198-206.

Loke A, et al. The Uptake of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Adolescents: A Systematic Review. J Prim Care Community Health. 2017;8(4):349-362.

Rees I, et al. Interventions to improve the uptake of cervical cancer screening among lower socioeconomic groups: A systematic review. Prev Med. 2018;111:323-35.


Patient Resources
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Information Sheet (2017)
I Respect Myself
Sexually Transmitted Blood Borne Infection Prevention (Video) (English, Inuktitut)
Tukisiviit - Pauktuutit (Inuktitut)



WHO. Guidelines for the prevention, care and treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis B infection. 2015.
WHO. Guidelines for the screening, care and treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis C infection. 2016.
WHO. Monitoring and evaluation for viral hepatitis B and C: recommended indicators and framework. 2016.

Articles on Hepatitis in the North

n.a. How do you say hepatitis in Inuktitut? Can Nurse. 2013;109(1):6.

Bouckaert R, et al. Tracing hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype B5 (formerly B6) evolutionary history in the circumpolar Arctic through phylogeographic modelling. PeeJ. 2017;5.

Byrd K, et al. Changing trends in viral hepatitis-associated hospitalizations in the American Indian/Alaska Native population, 1995-2007. Public Health Rep. 2011; 126(6):816-25.

Ching L, et al. Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma according to hepatitis B virus genotype in Alaska Native people. Liver Int. 2016;36(10):1507-15.

Gounder P, et al. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in Alaska Native Children and Young Adults with Hepatitis B Virus: Retrospective Cohort Analysis. J Pediatr. 2016;178:206-13.

Huynh C. Serological and molecular epidemiological outcomes after two decades of universal infant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in Nunavut, Canada. 2015.

Keck J, et al. Hepatitis B virus antibody levels 7 to 9 years after booster vaccination in Alaska native persons. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014;21(9):1339-42.

Kowalec K, et al. Genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus genotypes B6, D and F among circumpolar indigenous individuals. J Viral Hepat. 2013;20(2):122-30.

Livingston S, et al. Results of interferon-based treatments in Alaska Native and American Indian population with chronic hepatitis C. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016;75.

Minuk G, et al.Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in a Canadian Aboriginal population: results from the PRAIRIE study. 2013. 27(12):707-10.

Minuk G, et al. Viral hepattis in the Canadian Inuit and First Nations populations. 2003;17(12):707-12.

Osiowy C, et al. Distinct geographical and demographic distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes in the Canadian Arctic as revealed through an extensive molecular epidemiological survey. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18(4):e11-9.

Plumb I, et al. Persistence of antibody to Hepatitis A virus 20 years after receipt of Hepatitis A vaccine in Alaska. J Viral Hepat. 2017;24(7):608-12.

Raczniak G, et al. Long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis A virus vaccine in Alaska 17 years after initial childhood series. J Infect Dis. 2013;207(3):493-6.

Rempel J, et al. Hepatitis C virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal peoples of North America. Viruses. 2012;4(12):3912-31.

Rex K, et al. Hepatitis B among Inuit: A review with focus on Greenland Inuit. World J Hepatol. 2015;7(9):1265-71.

Rex K, et al. Liver biochemistry and associations with alcohol intake, hepatitis B virus infection and Inuit ethnicity: a population-based comparative epidemiological survey in Greenland and Denmark. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016;75.

Patient Resources

Paukuutit. Frequently Asked Questions About Hepatitis C. (Inuannaqtun, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, Nunavut)
Paukuutit. Getting Ready for Hepatitis C Treatment: A Guide. (Inuannaqtun, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik)
Paukuutit. Getting Tested for Hepatitis C. (Innuanaqtun, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, Nunavut)
Hepatitis B (HB) Vaccine Information Sheet. (2017)
Hepatitis Education Canada - Inuit

Paukuutit. Inuit Five-Year Strategic Plan on Hepatitis C 2013 - 2015. (French, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, Nunavut)
Paukuutit. Hepatitis C: Making Sense of Your Diagnosis. (Inuannaqtun, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, Nunavut)
Paukuutit. Tests Used for Diagnosing Hepatitis C. (Inuinnaqtun, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, Nunavut)
Paukuutit. What is Hepatitis C? (Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik)


Pneumococcal in the North

Reasonover A, et al. The International Circumpolar Surveillance Interlaboratory Quality Control Program for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1999 to 2008. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49(1):138-143.

Patient Resources

Government of Northwest Territories. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide 23 (Pneu-P-23) Vaccine Information Sheet. 2017.
Government of Northwest Territories. Pneumococcal conjugate 13 (Pneu-C-13) Vaccine Information Sheet. 2017.



CDC. RSV for Healthcare Professionals. 2018.

Committee on Infectious Diseases and Bronchiolitis Guidelines Committee. Updated guidance for palivizumab prophylaxis among infants and young children at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection. Pediatrics. 2014;134(2):415-420.

Ralston S, et al. Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. 2014;134(5):e1474-e1502.

Robinson J, et al. Preventing hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus infection. Canadian Paediatric Society. 2018.

Articles on RSV in the North

Banerji A, et al. Comparison of the cost of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus disease versus palivizumab prophylaxis in Canadian Inuit infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28(8):702-6.

Banerji A, et al. The real-life effectiveness of palivizumab for re-ducing hospital admissions for respiratory syncytial virus in infants residing in Nunavut. Can Respir J. 2014;21(3):185-189.

Bawage S, et al. Recent advances in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of human respiratory syncytial virus. Adv Virol. 2013.

Das L, et al. Bronchiectasis in children from qikiqtani (baffin) region, nunavut, Canada. Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2015;12(1):96-100.

Moraes T. Are we too passive in our attempts to prevent respiratory syncytial virus infection in Northern Canada? Can Respir J. 2014;21(3):163-164.

Systematic Reviews

Boyce T, et al. More on Viral Bronchiolitis in Children.  N Engl J Med. 2016;375(12):1199-200.

Caldwell N, et al. Where are we with RSV prophylaxis? Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2016;101(1):38-42.

Chu H, et al. Clinical Presentation and Birth Outcomes Associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Pregnancy. PLoS One. 2016;11(3).

Diez-Domingo, et al. Social, economic, and health impact of the respiratory syncytial virus: a systematic search. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:544.

DiFranza J, et al. Systematic literature review assessing tobacco smoke ex-posure as a risk factor for serious respiratory syncytial virus disease among infants and young children. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:81.

Jaberolansar N, et al. Recent advances in the development of subunit-based RSV vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2016; 15(1):53-68.

Jorquera P, et al. Understanding respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine development and aspects of disease pathogenesis. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2016;15(2):173-87.

Shi T, et al. Global, regional, and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in young children in 2015: a systematic review and modelling study. Lancet. 2019;390(10098):946-958.

Shi T, et al. Risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus associated with acute lower respiratory infection in children under five years: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Glob Health. 2015;5(2).

Spurling F, et al. Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014.

WHO. Global RSV surveillance. Weekly epidemiological record. 2016;91(44):514-524.

National Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease. HIV/STBBI Prevention and Control.


Government of Northwest Territories. Sexually Transmitted Infection Rates in Nunavut, 2007-2014. 2014.

Government of Nunavut. Nunavut Sexual Health Framework for Action 2012-2017. 2012.

Government of Nunavut. Syphilis Outbreak in Nunavut: 2013 Summary. 2013.


Tuberculosis in the North

Alvarez G, et al. Developing and Field Testing a Community Based Youth Initiative to Increase Tuberculosis Awareness in Remote Arctic Inuit Communities. PLoS One. 2016;11(7).

Alvarez G, et al. The Feasibility, Accuracy, and Impact of Xpert MTB/RIF Testing in a Remote Aboriginal Community in Canada. Chest. 2015;148(3):767-773.

Alvarez G, et al. The feasibility of the interferon gamma release assay and predictors of discordance with the tuberculin skin test for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in a remote Aboriginal community. PLoS One. 2014;9(11).

Alvarez G, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to describe the transmission dynamics among Inuit residing in Iqaluit Nunavut using whole genome sequencing. Clin Infect Dis. (2020).

Alvarez G, et al. Taima (stop) TB: the impact of a multifaceted TB awareness and door-to-door campaign in residential areas of high risk for TB in Iqaluit, Nunavut. PLoS One. 2014;9(7).

Bourgeois A, et al. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2016;75.

Bourgeois A, et al. Tuberculosis in the Circumpolar Region, 2006-2012. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2018;22(6):641-648.

Byberg S, et al. Diabetes is a risk factor for tuberculosis in the Inuit population of Greenland. European Respiratory Journal. 2012;40:1289-1291.

Case C, et al. Examining DNA fingerprinting as an epidemiology tool in the tuberculosis program in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72.

Dion R, et al. Results of a population screening intervention for tuberculosis in Nunavik villiage, Quebec, 2015-2016. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2018.

Fox G, et al. Inadequate Diet Is Associated with Acquiring Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in an Inuit Community. A Case-Control Study. Annals of the American Thoracic. 2015;12(8):1153-1162.

Guthrie J, et al. Comparison of routine field epidemiology and whole genome sequencing to identify tuberculosis transmission in a remote setting. Epidemiol Infect. 2020.

Guthrie J, et al. Whole genome sequencing for improved understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in a remote circumpolar region. Epidemiol Infect. 2019.

Kiddell-Monroe R, et al. Inuit communities can beat COVID-19 and tuberculosis. Lancet Public Health. 2020.

Khan F, et al. Housing and tuberculosis in an Inuit village in northern Quebec: a case-control study. CMAJ Open. 2016;4(3):E496-E506.

Kovesi T. Respiratory disease in Canadian First Nations and Inuit children. Paediatr Child Health. 201217(7):376-380.LaFreniere M, et al. Tuberculosis drug resistance in Canada: 2018. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2020.

Lee R, et al. Previously undetected super-spreading of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed by deep sequencing. Elife. 2020.

Orr P. Tuberculosis in Nunavut: looking back, moving forward. CMAJ. 2013;185(4):287-288.

Oxlade O, et al. Xpert(R)MTB/RIF for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in a Remote Arctic Setting: Impact on Cost and Time to Treatment Initiation. PLoS One. 2016;11(3).

Pease C, et al. The latent tuberculosis infection cascade of care in Iqaluit, Nunavut, 2012-2016. BMC Infect Dis. 2019.

PHAC. Addressing tuberculosis among Inuit in Canada. The Public Health Agency of Canada. 2018;44(3/4).

Sugarman J, et al. Sputum induction for tuberculosis diagnosis in an Arctic setting: a cost comparison. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014;18(10):1223-30.

Tollefson D, et al. Burden of tuberculosis in indigenous peoples globally: a systematic review. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013;17(9):1139-1150.

Tuite A, et al. Stochastic agent-based modeling of tuberculosis in Canadian Indigenous communities. BMC Public Health. 2017;73:73.

Vogel L. TB: fighting a forgotten disease in Canada. CMAJ. 2015;187(8):557.

Systematic Reviews

Bose A, et al. Intermittent versus daily therapy for treating tuberculosis in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014.

Chohen D, et al. Evidence supports TB test, so what now? Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews. 2013.

Critchley J, et al. Adjunctive steroid therapy for managing pulmonary tuberculosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014.

Gallardo C, et al. Fixed-dose combinations of drugs versus single-drug formulations for treating pulmonary tuberculosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016.

Grobler L, et al. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016.

Jeyashree K, et al. Smoking cessation interventions for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016.

Liu Q, et al. Reminder systems to improve patient adherence to tuberculosis clinic appointments for diagnosis and treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014.

Machoki M'imunya J, et al. Patient education and counselling for promoting adherence to treatment for tuberculosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012.

Molhave M, et al. Historical review of studies on the effect of treating latent tuberculosis. Int J Infect Dis. 2020.Prasad K, et al. Corticosteroids for managing tuberculous meningitis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016.

Yakoob M, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for preventing infections in children under five years of age. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016.

Ziganshina L, et al. Fluoroquinolones for treating tuberculosis (presumed drug-sensitive). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013.



American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin no. 151: Cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19, varicella zoster, and toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2015; 125(6):1510-25. (please request full text)

Hendriksz T, et al. Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and herpes zoster: immunization guidelines for adults. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2100; 111(10 Suppl 6): S10-2.

Health Canada. Varicella (Chickenpox). 2012. 

Health Canada. Varicella (chicenpox) vaccine: Canadian immunization guide. 2018.

Marin M, et al. Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vacine: recommendations of the Advisory Committe on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010; 59(RR-3): 1-12.

Marin M, et al. Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2007; 56(RR-4): 1-40.

Sehulster L, et al. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the healthcare infection control practices advisory committee (HICPAC). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003; 52(RR-10): 1-42.

World Health Organization. Varicella. 2015. 


Ahmad A, et al. Chickenpox outbreak in Faisalabad: a lesson for the future. J Infect Public Health. 2018; 11(4):596-597.

Beckingham R et al. Successful prevention of varicella outbreak with oral Aciclovir following party for pediatric oncology patients. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2018; 40(6): 488-489. (request full-text).

Cao Z, et al. Effectiveness of post-exposure prophylaxis during varicella outbreaks among primary and middle school students in Shanghai: An analysis of three-year surveillance data. Vaccine. 2018 (epub ahead of print) (request full-text)

Kurugol Z, Gokce S. Outbreak of varicella in preschool children despite one-dose vaccination. Turk J Pediatr. 2018; 60(1): 56-62.

Lopez A, et al. Varicella outbreak surveillance in schools in Sentinel jurisdictions, 2012-2015. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2018 (epub ahead of print) (request full-text)

Manistarski M, et al. Lessons from an outbreak of varicella infection in pediatric hemato-oncology patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018; 37(7): 649-653. (request full-text)

McRae J, et al. Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) annual report 2015: Prospective hospital-based surveillance for serious paediatric conditions. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2017;41(3):E264-278.

Sarit S, et al. Chicken pox outbreak in the intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital: lessons learnt the hard way. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2015; 19(12): 723-5.

Tang X, et al. Modelling the transmission and control strategies of varicella among school children in Shenzhen, China. Plos One. 2017. 22(17). 

Wu Q, et al. Effectiveness of varicella vaccine as post-exposure prophylaxis during a varicella outbreak in Shanghai, China. Int J Infect Dis. 2018;66:51-55.



Bruce M, et al. Reinfection after successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori in three different populations in Alaska. Epidemiol Infect. 2015;143(6):1236-46.Revich B et al. Climate change and zoonotic infections in the Russian Arctic. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71.

Goldfarb D, et al. Nanolitre real-time PCR detection of bacterial, parasitic, and viral agents from patients with diarrhoea in Nunavut, Canada. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72.

Goyette S, et al. Seroprevalence of parasitic zoonoses and their relationship with social factors among the Canadian Inuit in Arctic regions. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;78(4):404-10.

Hueffer K, et al. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impact of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72.

Jenkins E, et al. Old problems on a new playing field: Helminth zoonoses transmitted among dogs, wildlife, and people in a changing northern climate. Vet Parasitol. 2011;182(1):54-69.

Messier V, et al. Seroprevalence of seven zoonotic infections in Nunavik, Quebec (Canada). Zoonoses Public Health. 2012;59(2):107-17.

PHAC. Foodborne and waterborne illness among Canadian Indigenous populations: A scoping review. The Public  Health Agency of Canada. 2017;43(1).Yansouni C et al. Enteric parasites in Arctic communities: tip of the iceberg? Trends Parasitol. 2016;32(11):834-838.

Pufall E, et al. Prevalence of zoonotic anisakid nematodes in Inuit-harvested fish and mammals from the eastern Canadian Arctic. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012;9(11):1002-9.

Botulism in the North

Austin J, et al. Botulism in the North: a disease without borders. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2011;52(5):593-4.

Fagan R, et al. Persistence of Botulinum Toxin in Patients’ Serum: Alaska, 1959–2007. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009;199(7):1029-31.

Hammer T, et al. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland. Infect Dis (Lond). 2015;47(3):190-4.

Kraft C, et al. Botulism presenting as dyspnea and respiratory failure in the Canadian Arctic. CMAJ. 2016;188(12):896-898.

Leclair D, et al. Comparison of DNA fingerprinting methods for use in investigation of type E botulism outbreaks in the Canadian Arctic. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44(5):1635-44.

Leclair D, et al. Distribution of Clostridium botulinum Type E Strains in Nunavik, Northern Quebec, Canada. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79(2):646-54.

Leclair D, et al. Tracking sources of Clostridium botulinum type E contamination in seal meat. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017;76(1).

Leclair D, et al. Distribution of Clostridium botulinum type E strains in Nunavik, Northern Quebec, Canada. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79(2):646-54.

Leth P, et al. Botulism in Greenland. Forensic Sci Int. 2014;238:e1-2.

PHAC. Factsheet on Botulism. 2019.

Tomaselli M, et al. Contagious Ecthyma, Rangiferine Brucellosis, and Lungworm Infection in a Muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) from the Canadian Arctic, 2014. 2016;52(3):719-24.

Castrodale L, et al. A Case-Study of Implementation of Improved Strategies for Prevention of Laboratory-acquired Brucellosis. Saf Health Work. 2015;6(4):353-6.


Schurer J, et al. Echinococcosis: An Economic Evaluation of a Veterinary Public Health Intervention in Rural Canada. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(7).

Oksanen A, et al. Echinococcus canadensis transmission in the North. Vet Parasitol. 2015;213(3-4):182-6.

Gilbert N, et al. Hospitalization for trichinellosis and echinococcosis in Canada, 2001-2005: the tip of the iceberg? Can J Public Health. 2010;101(4):337-40.

Umhang G, et al. Sureveillance and management of Echinococcus multilocularis in a wildlife park. Parasitol Int. 2016;65(3):245-50.

Toxoplasma Gondii

Chaudhry S, et al. Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy. Can Fam Physician. 2014;60(4):334-6.

Elmore S, et al. Toxoplasma gondii in circumpolar people and wildlife. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12(1):1-9.

Hill D, et al. Toxoplasma gondii as a Parasite in Food: Analysis and Control. Microbiol Sectr. 2016;4(4).

Li Y, et al. Moving towards improved vaccines for Toxoplasma gondii. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2017;18(3):273-280.

Messier V, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among Nunavik Inuit (Canada). Zoonoses Public Health. 2009;56(4):188-97.

Reiling S, et al. Toxoplasma gondii: How an Amazonian parasite became an Inuit health issue. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2019.

Simon A, et al. Fate and transport of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in seasonally snow covered watersheds: a conceptual framework from a melting snowpack to the Canadian arctic coasts. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(3):994-1005.