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Citing Alternate Formats - Chicago Style: Websites, Blogs, Social Media

Websites

It is often sufficient to describe web pages in the text of your paper ("As of May 1, 2017, Yale's home page listed..."), or to limit their citations to only the notes. Websites are included in the bibliography only if they are frequently cited or critical to your argument.

When citing websites, include as much of the following as can be determined: the title of the web page, the title of the website, the owner or sponsor of the site, the url, and a publication date or date of revision (if none can be determined, include an access date).

If there is no title, the website can be identified in terms of the entity responsible for the site.

The word website (or web page) may be added in parentheses after the title or the description of the site if the nature of the source is unclear.

[14.207]

Note:

Author First Name Last Name, "Title of Web Page," Title of Website or Publishing Organization, Date updated (or accessed), URL.

(or see first example below with no individual author)

  1. "History of recorded sound in Canada," LIbrary and Archives Canada, Government of Canada, last modified February 29, 2016, http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/films-videos-sound-recordings/virtual-gramophone/Pages/history-recorded-soun.aspx.
  2. Katie Bouman, "How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole," filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51, https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

Bib:  (if needed)

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Web Page.” Title of Website or Publishing Organization. Date updated (or accessed). URL.
  Government of Canada. "History of recorded sound in Canada." LIbrary and Archives Canada. Last modified February 29,2016. http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/films-videos-sound-recordings/virtual-gramophone/Pages/history-recorded- soun.aspx.
  Bouman, Katie. "How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole." Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconSreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

Blogs

Blog posts are cited like online newspaper articles.

Like newspaper articles, blog post citations can often be relegated to the text or notes. If a bibliography entry is needed - if it is critical to your argument or frequently cited - it should be listed under the author of the post.

Citations should include the author of the post; the "title of the post," the title of the blog, the date of the post; and a URL. The word blog may be added (in parentheses) after the title (unless the word blog is part of the title).

Blogs that are part of a larger publication should also include the name of that publication.

Comments can usually be cited in the text, referencing the related post. If you cite the comment in a note, list the name of the commenter and the date of the comment, followed by information for the related post. See example below.

See 14.208 in Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition for  more information.

Note Author First Name Last Name, "Title of Blog Post," Title of Blog (blog), Name of larger publication (if applicable), Date of post, URL.
  1. Robert Hugill, "Swan songs - Gerald Finley and Julius Drake at Temple Song," Planet Hugill - A world of classical music (blog), October 3, 2018, http://www.planethugill.com/2018/10/swan-songs-gerald-finley-and-julius.html.
  2. Deb Amlen, "One Who Gives a Hoot," Wordplay (blog), New York Times, January 26, 2015, http://wordplay.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/26/one-who-gives-a-hoot/.
  Comment
 

4. Jim, February 16, 2017, comment on Germano, "Futurist Shock," http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/#comment-3158909472.

Bib.  (if needed) Author Last Name, First Name. "Title of Blog Post." Title of Blog (blog). Name of larger publication, Date of post. URL.
  Hugill, Robert. "Swan songs - Gerald Finley and Julius Drake at Temple Song." Planet Hugill - A world of classical music (blog), October 3, 2018. http://www.planethugill.com/2018/10/swan-songs-gerald-finley-and-julius.html.

Social Media

Citations of social media content can often be limited to the text; if it is important to provide a link, include a note. Only a frequently cited account or an extensive thread related to a single subject may be included in a bibliography.

If citing in a note or bibliography, include:

Author - list the real name (person, group, institution) if known, followed by a screen name in parentheses. If only a screen name is known, use that in place of the author's name.

The text of the post - this replaces the title. Quote up to 160 characters, capitalized as in the original. If the post was quoted in the text, it need not be repeated in a note.

Name of social media service (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.) and description if relevant (photo, video, etc.)

Date - including month, day, year. Time stamps can be included if necessary to differentiate post from others on the same day.

URL.

[14.209]

Note Author First Name Last Name (Screen name), "Text of the post up to 160 characters," Social Media Service, Date of post, URL.
  1. Conan O'Brien (@ConanOBrien), "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my tweets," Twitter, April 22, 2015, https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.
  2. Chicago Manual of Style, "Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993," Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
  Comment
  3. Michele Truty, "We do need a gender-neutral pronoun," April 17, 2015, comment on Chicago Manual of Style, "singular they," https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
Bib. (if needed) Author Last Name, First Name (Screen Name). "Text of the post up to 160 characters." Social Media Service, Date of post. URL.
  Chicago Manual of Style. "Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993." Facebook, April 17, 2015.https://facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.