Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
The University of Manitoba campuses are located on original lands of Anishinaabeg, Cree, Oji-Cree, Dakota, and Dene peoples, and on the homeland of the Métis Nation. More

Citing Alternate Formats - Chicago Style: Formatting: Footnote and Bibliography

Chicago Style - Formatting notes and bibliography entries

Notes in the text
Notes, whether footnotes or endnotes, should be numbered consecutively, beginning with 1.
Note reference numbers in the text of your paper are set as superior (superscript) numbers.
The note number should generally be placed at the end of a sentence or at the end of a clause. The number normally follows a quotation (whether it is in  the text or set as an extract). The number follows any punctuation mark except for the dash, which it precedes.
ex: The bias was apparent in the Shotwell series—and it must be remembered that Shotwell was a student of Robinson’s.

"Crushed thirty feet upwards, the waters flashed for an instant like heaps of fountains, then brokenly sank in a shower of flakes, leaving the circling surface creamed like new milk round the marble trunk of the whale." ²

Footnotes / Endnotes
Notes can be listed at the bottom of each page, as footnotes or on a separate page at the end of the chapter or paper.
The note reference number should be full size, not raised, and followed by a period. Indent the first line of each note.
See specific format type in this guide for information on how to construct note content.
ex:       1. Stuart Shea, Wrigley Field: The Long Life and Contentious Times of the Friendly Confines (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014), 51–52.
ex:       2. Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627.
Subsequent citations of sources already given in full should be shortened whenever possible. The most common short form consists of the last name of the author and the main title of the work cited, usually shortened if more than four words, plus the page reference. See note 4 below.
The abbreviation ibid. (from ibidem, “in the same place”) usually refers to a single work cited in the note immediately preceding. Chicago style discourages the use of ibid. and prefers shortened citations. In addition, Chicago disallows both op. cit. and loc. cit. and instead uses the shortened citation form described in the paragraph above and shown in note 4 below.
ex:      1. Samuel A. Morley, Poverty and Inequality in Latin America: The Impact of Adjustment and Recovery (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), 24–25.
ex:      2. Regina M. Schwartz, “Nationals and Nationalism: Adultery in the House of David,” Critical Inquiry 19, no. 1 (1992): 131–32.
ex:      4. Morley, Poverty and Inequality, 43.
All sources to be included—books, articles, dissertations, and so on—are alphabetically arranged in a single list by the last names of the authors (or, if no author or editor is given, by the title).
Musical recordings are usually listed in a separate discography rather than in a bibliography. If included in a bibliography, they are best grouped under an appropriate subhead.
Indent each line of the entry after the first line
See specific format type in this guide for information on how to construct bibliography entries.