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Citing Alternate Formats - Chicago Style

Numbering notes in the text

Number notes consecutively, beginning with 1. 

Note (endnote or footnote) numbers in the text of your paper are set as superscript numbers.

The number should be placed at the end of a sentence or at the end of a clause, or directly following the quotation mark. The number follows any punctuation mark except for the dash, which it precedes.

 The bias was apparent in the Shotwell series¹—and it must be remembered that Shotwell was a student of Robinson’s.

"Crushed thirty feet upwards, the waters flashed for an instant like heaps of fountains, then brokenly sank in a shower of flakes, leaving the circling surface creamed like new milk round the marble trunk of the whale."²

Footnotes / Endnotes

Notes can be listed at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). 

Within the notes section, the note reference number should be full size, not superscript as in the text, and followed by a period. Indent the first line of each note. 

See specific format type in this guide for information on how to construct note content. 

     1. Stuart Shea, Wrigley Field: The Long Life and Contentious Times of the Friendly Confines (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014), 51–52.

     2. Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 62.

Repeated citations (subsequent citations)

Citations of sources previously given in full should be shortened when possible. The most common short form consists the last name of the author(s) and the main title of the work, usually shortened if more than four words, plus the page reference. See note 3 below.

     1. Samuel A. Morley, Poverty and Inequality in Latin America: The Impact of Adjustment and Recovery (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), 24–25.

     2. Regina M. Schwartz, “Nationals and Nationalism: Adultery in the House of David,” Critical Inquiry 19, no. 1 (1992): 131–32.

     3. Morley, Poverty and Inequality, 43.


All sources to be included—books, articles, dissertations, and so on—are alphabetically arranged in a single list by the last names of the authors (or, if no author or editor is given, by the title).

Musical recordings are usually listed in a separate discography rather than in a bibliography. If included in a bibliography, they are best grouped under an appropriate subhead

Indent each line of the entry after the first line.

See specific format type in this guide for information on how to construct bibliography entries.

Brooks, Daniel R., and Deborah A. McLennan. The Nature of Diversity: An Evolutionary Voyage of Discovery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.