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Citing Alternate Formats - Chicago Style

Sound Recordings

The composer, conductor or performer may be listed first, depending which is the focus of the recording or is more relevant to the discussion.

Names of additional contributors, the number of discs, the duration of the recording, and the date and location of the recording, production, or performance can also be included. The order of these elements will depend on the nature of the source.

Include designations such as vocalist, conductor, or director as appropriate.

In a note, a citation may begin with a title; in a bibliography entry, list by composer, performer, or other primary contributor

Date: Include the date of the recording or the copyright date or published date . If a date cannot be determined from the recording, try checking the record in the library catalogue. If no date can be found, use "n.d." (no date).

For streaming audio formats and downloads, list the service or the file format, as applicable.

Musical recordings are usually listed in a separate discography rather than in a bibliography. If included in a bibliography, they are best grouped under an appropriate subhead.

Please see 'Formatting' page for information on how to properly format the Notes and Bibliography in your paper.



Composer/Performer/Conductor First-Name Last-Name or Name of Ensemble, Name of musical work, Composer/Performer First-Name Last-Name or Name of Ensemble, Conductor First-Name Last-Name (if ensemble), Record label and CD identifying number, Year, Format.

OR see examples below for alternate note formats.


     #. Composer, performer

Note:       1. Robert Schumann, Kinderszenen op.15, Jorg Demus (piano), Nuova Era 7314, 1989, compact disc.

     #. Composer, Ensemble, Soloists, Conductor, Recording date

Note:       2. Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, with Emmanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, recorded February 24,1940, Biddulph LAB 042,1991,compact disc.

     #. Title of Work, Conductor

Note:      3. The Fireside Treasury of Folk Songs, vol.1, orchestra and chorus dir. Mitch Miller,Golden Record A198:17A-B, 1958, 33⅓ rpm.
       #. Single Track with Performer, Composer/s, Recording Date, Track Number, Album Title and Work Title
Note      4. Billie Holiday, vocalist, “I’m a Fool to Want You,” by Joel Herron, Frank Sinatra, and Jack Wolf, recorded February 20, 1958, with Ray Ellis, track 1 on Lady in Satin, Columbia CL 1157, 33⅓ rpm.
       #. One track from an album on streaming service
Note:      5. “Umbrella,” featuring Jay-Z, Spotify, track 1 on Rihanna, Good Girl Gone Bad, Island Def Jam, 2007.
       #. Recording from Library Database
Note:      6. Robert Schumann. Davidsbundlertanze; Kreisleriana. Jerome Rose (piano), recorded July 12, 2005. Monarch Classics/Qualiton, 2005, Classical Music Library/Alexander Street Press.


Composer/Performer/Conductor Last-Name, First-Name. Name of musical album. Composer/Performer First-Name Last Name or Ensemble. Conductor. Record label and CD identifying number,Year,Format.

OR see examples below of other bibliographic entries.

  Opera CD set with ensemble, conductor and soloists

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni. Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Sir Colin Davis. With Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa, et al. Recorded May 1973. Phillips 422 541-2, 1991, 3 compact discs.


Entire CD set featuring performer


Rubinstein, Artur, pianist. The Chopin Collection. Recorded 1946, 1958-67. RCA Victor / BMG 60822-2-RC, 1991, 11 compact discs.

  Re-released CD

Pink Floyd. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, 1990, compact disc. Originally released in 1970.

  One work on a recording, from Library Database

Shostakovich, Dmitry. Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, Op. 54. Estonian Festival Orchestra. Paavo Järvi, Alpha 389, 2018, Naxos Music Library.


Conductor, Title of Work, LP


Miller, Mitch, director. The Fireside Treasury of Folk Songs. Golden Record A198:17A-B, 1958, 33⅓ rpm.

Liner Notes

If the notes are unsigned (that is, no author is indicated), simply add “Liner notes.” to the end of the citation of the recording.

Signed notes may be cited by the author’s name. If the notes are titled, the title may follow the author’s name.

Note:    1. Pietro Acquafredda, "The complete PIano Works, vol.4," liner notes for Complete Piano Works, vol. 4, by Robert Schumann, Jorg Demus (piano), Nuova Era 7314, 1989, compact disc.

Johnson, Graham. "The Italian Songbook of Hugo Wolf." Liner notes for Italienisches Liederbuch, by Hugo Wolf. With Felicity Lott, Peter Schreier, and Graham Johnson. Hyperio CDA66760S, 1994, compact disc.


Ravel, Maurice. Ravel Volume Two. The Philharmonia Orchestra. Geoffrey Simon. Cala Records CACD 1005, 1991, compact disc. Liner notes.